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tarily by some of other religious denominations, who requested the acceptance of such marks of their approbation, was remitted to America in aid of, and to encourage the extension of Indian civilization ; which it was generally regretted, had hitherto been confined to so small a portion of the objects of this benevolent concern.
The local situation of the society in the state of New York, with respect to the Indians, had 'not hitherto engaged much of their attention to the subject : but some new settlements of those in religious profession with them, having been lately made on their frontier, and in the neighbouring parts of Upper Canada, under the British government, a co-operation with their more southward brethren, had by this time induced their yearly meeting (held in the city of New York) to adopt similar measures. It was therefore thought, that yearly meeting should sbare with those of Philadelphia and Baltimore, in the aid afforded from Europe, which was apportioned accordingly.
The approbation manifested in England of the views of the society called Quakers, was not confined to its members. An equally benevolent association was formed here, “ For civilizing and improving the North American Indians, within the British Boundary;" and as in the printed proposal for forming such a laudable institution, a full approbation of the objects and measures detailed in those pages, was expressed; the benevolent mind will derive additional pleasure from the hope, that different associations of men, however distinguished by their local, political, or religious attachments, are at this moment harmoniously contributing their assistance in promoting the happiness of millions of their fellow creatures, who yet, bewildered in pagan darkness, are literally in danger of perishing from “ lack of knowledge,” on the American continent. It is generally understood that the British government has long appropriated £3000 per annum, for promoting the same objects amongst the Six Nations, of wbom a considerable part is not now within the British boundary; and consequently the number who may be considered as entitled to partake of that bounty, must be very greatly reduced. Is it not worthy of enquiry, in what manner that bounty is now annually distributed : Or to whom its management can be more properly entrusted than to the respectable institution just mentioned? and whether, however unexceptionably it may have hitherto been applied, some mode better calculated to answer its very important purposes,
may not be devised? The government of the United States, on a far greater extent of frontier, has determined on the appropriation of but £3375 sterling to the same purpose; and we hear that the most beneficial consequences have resulted from it. In answer to a question of mere curiosity, in what manner the British bounty (by some called the King's gift) has latterly been distributed, the compiler of this Summary, was informed by an intelligent Mohawk chief, that perhaps each individual might receive the value of a yard or two of cloth, or a sufficiency to keep up a drunken debauch for a few days. Ile bas, however, much satisfaction in adding from the same authority, that those who were intended to partake of the royal benevolence, are much less addicted than formerly, to habits of drunkenness. And a wise application of that largess, with the exclusive possession of the Indian Reservation on the north bank of lake Erie, secured by some act of the government of Upper Canada, seems to be only necessary to the further improvement of the Indians in that quarter. The British government has solemnly guaranteed to them exclusively, the possession of that Reservation. But the cupidity of white speculators, allured by the fertility of the soil, and practising on the credulity or ignorance of Indi. ans, has been suffered to disturb that possession ; and if not timely guarded against, will ultimately dispossess them of the whole. In what way can Britain so usefully manifest its gratitude to the Mohawk nation for a long and faithful attachment, as by instituting a parliamentary enquiry into the means of preventing the total extirpation of the Indians, which will be the probable effect of much longer neglect? In a council held by the Indians within the American boundary, at Buffalo creek, in the Autumn of 1809, the principal subject which occupied its deliberations, was the prevention of any alienation of the lands reserved exclusively for their own use. And some of their warriors had threatened with death, any chief who should consent to it. It is not improbable that the federal legislature have taken such measures as will prevent any subject of the United States from purchasing of them, or if not, that a law, so essentially necessary to the prosperity of the Indians, now obviously increasing in population, will not long be delayed.
Before he concludes these desultory remarks, the writer wishes respectfully to submit to “ the British and Foreign Bible Society,” the propriety of considering whether the subjects of the preceding Summary, might not derive important
benefit from the extension of its benevolent attention to them. In 1805, that society published a translation of “ the Gospel according to St. John" into the Mohawk language. As this language is generally understood by the rest of the Six Nations, a considerable number of which are now settled within the American boundary, might not a part of the edition be properly appropriated to their use ? Amongst the variety of information received here respecting them, it does ilot appear that a single copy of that translation had any where been seen : and as the English text is printed with the corresponding page, it might not only prove the means of imparting much important religious instruction, but be also usefully introduced as a school book, amongst their young people.
On the Progress of the Civilization of Africa, as connected
with the Abolition of the Slave Trade.
In the first number of the Philanthropist I furnished a paper, containing my thoughts on the most rational means of promoting civilization in barbarous states; and I find, in page 42 of the same work, an Account by some other per
a Society to promote the Civilization of Africa. Now as both these papers relate to the same subject, only that one comprehends the case of all rude nations in general, and the other that of Africa in particular, and as Africa in particular not only affords the widest field for, but has the greatest claim upon, the labours of the Philanthropist, it strikes me, that it would harmonize with the design of this new work, and at the same time be acceptable to many, if I were to give some account of the efforts, which have been made directly with a view of civilizing that vast continent, as well as of the effects of the same ; for, in contemplating these, we may be led to confirm the truth or detect the falsehood of those general principles, which I laid down in the former number, or perhaps to establish others, which, in a general and cursory view of the subject, I may have overlooked, but which may be equally necessary with the former in the promotion of so vast an object.
Among the efforts then made to civilize Africa, I must first of all consider that most important one, the attempt to abolish the Slave Trade. Without this, as a previous step, all other steps had been useless. It would not have signified either how many, or what enlightened persons had been settled upon that continent for this purpose. All the lessons of industry which they could have inculcated, all the examples of it which they could have shewn, all the incitements they could bavegiven to the introduction of a prudent provision for the future, all the improvements they could have suggested for domestic comfort, or for promoting the progress of the arts, or for the perfecting of moral duties, would have been ineffectual, while the objects of their care and compassion were liable to be forced from their families and homes; while in the midst of some profitable pursuit or calling, they were liable to be torn from an enjoyment of the fruits of it; and while the notion existed among them that it was lawful for man to make a merchandize of his fellow man. Of those, therefore, who have had it in contemplation to civilize Africa, they, of all others, have taken the most effectual step, who have endeavoured to annihilate this nefarious commerce. This particular attempt was begun in the year 1787, and was at length, after a most severe but glorious struggle, crowned with success (as far as related to the British empire) on the twentyfifth of March 1807, on which day the Act for the Abolition became a law of the land. Since this day more than three years have now elapsed. It is within this time then that I am to look for materials for my present purpose, for I am to shew what has been the result of the Abolition of the Slave Trade, as it relates to the progress of the civilization of Africa within this period.
To shew this, I must just premise, that we can only notice those districts on the coast of Africa, which are within the range of our own influence, or rather, where the government of our country has sufficient influence, at least to a certain degree, to enforce the great legislative Act just mentioned. Of such there are three. The first of these in order, and the first therefore which I shall take for consideration, contains the island of Goree and its dependencies. This island is situated under Cape Verd, and in latitude 14° north. It has a British garrison upon it. Opposite to it lies a very interesting portion of the continent of Africa, which, though it be not like Goree, absolutely under British dominion, is yet considerably under British influence. This portion is bounded
on the north by the great river Senegal, on the south by the great river Gambia, and on the west, for about 200 miles, by the ocean. It contains no less than three kingdoms under the names of Cayor, Barsin, and Barsalli. All the slaves made in these used to be brought to Goree, as the great store-house or depot for receiving them, and from whence they were to be shipped to the American world. Let us now consider the Abolition, as it has affected the civilization of the natives of
In a letter dated “Gorce, January 1809," and which was handed for my inspection, I read, with the most lively pleasure, the following interesting passage.
“ As to the Slave Trade in these parts, it is nearly annihilated. The slave-market at Goree is no more. Not a slave now finds his way from the continent to this island. It is possible a few poor wretches may be got off both on the banks of the Senegal and the Gambia, as some chance vessel may be passing by. Captain Parker, however, of his Majesty's ship Derwent, has done a good deal towards preventing this. He took lately an American schooner as she was coming out of the Gambia, and made prize of her and her slaves. This transaction has made a sensible impression both at Goree and on the main land. The old brokers had no notion that the English would have taken foreign ships concerned in this traffic. There is, I am told, a very sensible difference here both in the disposition and manners of the natives since the Abolition took place. We have many visitors from the main land, who come among us now without any apparent suspicion or fear. They do not usually bring their arms with them as before. They have more confidence also in one another ; and there is, I am told, a greater intercourse between the villages than formerly. Neither men nor women are so shy or afraid of their neighbours.
To enable the reader to judge of this important change, and to determine how far the Abolition has effected the civilization of those in question, I shall lay before him a few short extracts from the evidence delivered before the House of Commons on this subject, as it relates to these very parts.
Captain Hills, of the royal navy, declares, That while he was in the neighbourhood of Goree, in the year 1782, “the natives all went armed, and this entirely for fear of being taken and sold for slaves. He frequently saw people go out at dusk on the opposite continent, and in the morning, on going there, found men and women in the huts of the former,