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Here, as well as at Oneida, a jealousy prevailed that these persevering exertions for the benefit of the Indians could not be wholly disinterested ; and that at least some remuneration of tbe pecuniary part of the expense attending them, might ultimately be demanded : but the assurances now given, again proved perfectly satisfactory. The quantity of corn (maize) raised in this year (1801) was nearly ten-fold of that produced when the improvement commenced. A few of them now made the first attempt to cultivate wheat; but many, adhering to former custom, occasionally employed their time in hunting ; leaving the culture of the corn with the hoe to their women.
The deputation also this ycar visited Catarogus on the request of the chiefs of that village, where their saw-mill was now finished ; and one of the agents at Genesangohta continued with them to instruct their own people in the mode of working it.
In 1902, it appears that several young Indians had been steadily employed in the smith's trade, with considerable improvement; and that those of Catarogus, made out pretty well in working their saw-mill. Several who at first had none, now bad six or seven head of cattle, with other useful ani. mals; and attributed the alteration to the disuse of whiskey, the consumption of which was much lessened. Other sources of encouragement were incrcasingly evident. Eighteen or twenty thousand rails * had been split and put up, and thirteen or fourteen new enclosures made, as well as mostly cleared of their wood, in this year. A commodious road, where neither man or beast could before easily pass, was opened about five miles in length ; several had crops of spring whealt; and a number of their young men had become capable of using the plough. The consumption of strong liquors had also decreased on the Buffalo Reservation, (fifteen or twenty miles north eastward of Oneida,) with a disposition further to discourage it.
In September 1803, four of the committee at Philadelphia were again deputed to visit the Indians in this district, and authorized to effect some alterations which the progressive improvement of the settlement at Genesangohta had rendered expedient. Some of the Indians had increased their stock of cattle faster than their means for subsisting them through
* These are generally about ten feet long, and of considerable substance. Of these the fences in the woody parts of America, are generally constructed.
+ Contradistinguished from that sowo in the autumn, though otherwise similar.
a long and rigorous winter: when their hay and other fodder became much reduced, they were accustomed to apply to their more provident benefactors; who could not always supply their wants, without injury to their own cattle. And as frequent refusals of such assistance might possibly disturb the existing harmony with the Indians, it was thought best to embrace the opportunity of purchasing a tract of land, which, although adjoining the Indian Reservation, was not included in it; and especially as in a late council the Indians had consented to the alteration. The discussions which this proposal occasioned, were conducted in perfect harmony; and the gratitude of the Indians for past services and favours was clearly evinced by their solicitude that their benefactors should not be exposed to any inconveniency in making the alteration,
A tract of land was therefore purchased on the Tunesassa creek, which falls into the Allegany ricer on the east side, about two miles above Genesangohta, containing near 700 acres, with a stream sufficient for a mill : and the erection of a house, &c. necessary to the establishment of a new farm, on land to which the committee had now acquired the exclusive legal title, was proceeded on. The family of agents removed to it in the autumn, and all the erections and improvements on that they were about to quit, were left as soon as possible, in possession of the Indians; who it was supposed were now qualified to manage them properly. Their industry in other places had been conspicuous, and, added to their increasing habits of sobriety, seemed to authorise the belief that the Divine Blessing had hitherto attended these disinterested labours, and might be boped for in perseverance in them. By this time the Indians had opened about twenty-two miles of road, affording a much improved communication between the lower and upper settlements on tbis Reservation.
From thence the deputies went to Catarogus, where they met a cordial reception, and had the satisfaction of noticing very great improvements. Some had built, and others were building, good houses : their crops of corn were large ; and their stock of cattle increased : and, generally speaking, they had become a sober people. Sitting while there, with their chief, he said he wished to ask them a question, but was almost afraid ; it was,
" Do the Quakers keep any, slaves ?" He was told, they did not. He said, he was glad
to hear it, as otherwise he could not think so well of them as he then did ; having been at the city of Washington the last winter on business of the nation, and there observed, “ that many white people, who kept blacks in slavery, used them no better than horses.” They also visited the Senecas on Buffalo creek, (where they found a saw-mill just finished, for which the committee had supplied the iron-work) and also the Tonewantas : at both places, and particularly the latter, many had left the use of strong liquors, and were improving in habits of industry.
[To be continued.]
Account of a Society to promote the Civilization of Africa,
and of some Attempts to edade the Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.
He importance of an union among good men of all descriptions, in the accomplishment of a great object, was never more fully evinced than by the Abolition of the African Slave Trade, and the meeting at the Freemason's Tavern, on the 25th of March, 1808, in commemoration of this happy event, was perhaps one of the grandest spectacles that could have been presented to the eye of the philanthropist. More than four hundred persons dined together, consisting of the Duke of Gloucester as president, peers, commoners, prelates, private individuals, to whom fortune or talent had given distinction, in short, members of government and of opposition, churchmen and dissenters of various descriptions were attracted by one common sympathy to rejoice together in this great and glorious triumph. The consideration of the magnitude of the object, the long and arduous labours which had attended its prosecution, and its complete attainment, conspired to give an interest to the scene which must have warmed the coldest heart. The union of so much virtue and talent, in persons of very opposite opinions in other respects, afforded a strong and gratifying proof, that however good men may differ upon less essential points, yet when the object is to ameliorate the condition of our species, there is but one sentiment among virtuous minds : every individual feels as a man and a christian.
Those noble and benevolent characters who had been active in promoting this great measure, felt that much was still due to Africa, as a reparation for her wrongs; that it was not enough, to defend her from the steel of the ruffian, but the great bar to her improvement being removed, they conceived the glorious idea of attempting to extend the blessings of civilization to one hundred and fifty millions of buman beings.
A design so grand and so truly christian, must interest every benevolent mind in its success; and as we believe it only requires to be generally known in order to be extensively patronized, we shall give an account of the objects of the institution in the words of the managers, as well as the names of those to whom its affairs are entrusted.
Patron and President,
Board of Directors. Right Hon. Lurd Gambier
Geo. Harrison, Esq. Right Hon. Lord Headley
W. Henry Hoare, Esq. Right Hon. J. C. Villiers
W. Huskisson, Esq. M.P. Right Hon. N. Vansittart
Matthew Martin, Esq.
M. Montague, Esq. M. P.
Zachary Macaulay, Esq.
Charles Pieschell, Esq. T. Babington, Esq. M. P.
W.M. Pitt, Esq. M. P. Robert Barclay, Esq.
Granville Sharp, Esq. Wilbraham Bootle, Esq. M. P. William Smith, Esq. M. P. John Bowdler, jun. Esq.
T. Woodrošle Smith, Esq. Henry Brougham, Esq. M. P. James Stephen, Esq. M.P. Thomas Clarkson, Esq.
S. Thornton, Esq. M. P. Col. Dalton
R. Thornton, Esq. M. P. John Egerton, Esq. M. P.
John Thornton, Esq. Edward Forster, Esq.
James Towers, Esq. Thomas F. Forster, Esq.
James Rice Williams, Esg.
A number of individuals, deeply impressed with a sense of the enormous wrongs which the natives of Africa have suffered in their intercourse with Europe; and actuated by a desire to repair those wrongs, as well as by general feelings of benevolence, have been anxious to adopt such measures as may seem best calculated to promote their civilization and happiness. They have therefore formed themselves into a society for that purpose, called the AFRICAN INSTITUTION; and they earnestly solicit the aid of the humane and benevolent in every part of the kingdom, in furtherance of their design.
The Abolition of the Slave Trade, hitherto carried on by Great Britain, America, and Denmark, will, in a considerable degree, remove the barrier which has so long obstructed the natural course of social improvement in Africa; and thus open a way for introducing the comforts and arts of a more civilized state of society. The happiest effects may also be reasonably anticipated from diffusing useful knowledge, and