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quos audio etc.: cf. n. on 24, 1. 18 doctum quendam, and for audio n. on 41, l. 12. Observe that Cic. writes habitos, not haberi. 18 placuisse : "I think that some...have held as dogmas ’; the word placere has often a much stronger sense than our 'please'.

mirabilia: mapádoča, a word which Cic. translated sometimes by mirabilia (Acad. 2, 136), sometimes by admirabilia (Parad. prooem. 4; Fin. 4, 74), sometimes by admiranda.

sed: in contrast to mirabilia-paradoxes indeed, but'. 19 quod etc.: 'which they do not refine upon (lit. track out) in their subtlety'.

partim: there is slight anacoluthon here; the sentence is closed without the second partim which should correspond to this, and its place is taken by alios at the beginning of the next sentence. Both partim and alii refer to quibusdam. Such anacolutha, where only one of a pair of words such as alter alter, alius alius etc. is expressed and the other replaced (in another sentence) by some other expression, are very common in Cic.; cf. n. on 73, 1. 3. Madvig has collected a large number of exx, in the first excursus to his De Finibus.

fugiendas etc.: that a man should avoid making too much of his friendships' (lit. 'that too much friendships, excessive friendships are to be avoided'). Through not seeing that homini (not hominibus) is to be supplied after fugiendas, some editors have against Latin usage forced nimias into meaning nimis multas, because of pluribus below. In the words that follow, the emphasis lies not on unum pro pluribus (for it is assumed that each man will have more friends than one) but on sollicitum. Cic. is evidently here imitating a chorus of the Hippolytus of Euripides, l. 253 sq. The nurse of Phaedra speaks :

χρην γαρ μετρίας εις αλλήλους
φιλίας θνητούς ανακίρνασθαι
και μη προς άκρον μυελος ψυχής, ,
εύλυτα δ' είναι στέργηθρα φρενών
από τ' ώσασθαι και συντείναι.
το δ' υπέρ δισσών μίαν ωδίνειν
yuxriv xaletròv Bápos, ws kåyw
τήσδ' ύπερ αλγώ. .
ούτω το λίαν ήσσον επαινω
του μηδέν άγαν

και συμφήσουσι σοφοί μοι. . The sentiment is the same as that in Sophocles' Ajax 680 és te τον φίλον | τοσαύθ' υπουργών ωφελεϊν βουλήσομαι | ως αιέν ου μενούντα.

satis superque etc.: each man has of his own business enough for himself and to spare'. For the almost pleonastic sibi cf. Tusc. 5, 42 omnia sibi in se posita censebit, and the use in comedy of suus

sibi. 23 laxissimas habenas: a representation of i. 4 of the passage quoted

above, εύλυτα δ' είναι στέργηθρα φρενών. The collocation habenas habere

21

seems intentional; cf. 22, l. 18 vita vitalis. Lucr. 2, 1095 has quis habere profundi indu manu validas potis est moderanter habenas.

quas: here=ita ut eas. 24 adducas...remittas: ámó i wraodai kal ouveîval. For adducere 'to

draw tight' cf. Verg. Aen. 9, 587 a. habenas; Liv. 9, 10, quin adducis lorum ? For the position of cum velis see n. on 8, l. 21 cum summi viri tum amicissimi.

caput: 'the chief matter'; cf. maximum est in 69, p. 49, 1. 33. 25 beate vivendum: in the Latin of Cicero's time there was no one

word to represent the Greek eŭdaljovia=happiness. Cic. himself in one passage (N. D. 1, 95) coined beatitas and beatitudo, but did not again use the words, though they became current later. Cf. 84, 1. 6 beata vita.

securitatem: as Seyffert remarks, Cic. uses this word as well to express the evdvuia (cheerfulness) of Democritus, as the stábela (absence of emotion) of the Stoics, and the noovn of Epicurus.

qua frui non possit: in the oratio recta this would be qua frui non potest. In representing in oratio obliqua clauses with a relative which is simply connective (qui=et is or nam is) Cic. allows himself a certain latitude between the construction with acc. and inf. (qua frui non posse animum) and the subjunctive construction which we have here. We find in Acad. I, 42 ... scientiam nominabat : ex qua exsis. teret etiam opinio; but in Fin. 3, 64 mundum autem censent regi numine deorum eumque esse communem urbem et civitatem hominum et deorum, et unum quemque nostrum eius mundi esse partem, ex quo illud natura consequi, ut... The subjunctive verb in the one passage and the infinitive verb in the other would each of them be present indicative in oratio recta, and their constructions would be exactly similar. Cf. also Tusc. 3, 69 Theophrastus accusasse naturam dicitur quod cervis et cornicibus vitam diuturnam quorum id nihil interesset, hominibus, quorum maxime interfuisset, tam exiguam vitam dedisset ; Acad. I, 28 ex quibus effectum esse mundum, extra quem nulla pars materiae sit; Fin. 4, 16 aiunt artis requisitas quae naturam adiuvarent, in quibus ea numeretur...; N. D. i, 106 hoc idem fieri in deo, cuius crebra facie pellantur animi. Cf. also below, 88, l. 18 fuisset. It will be seen that the ordinary grammar rule, thus given by Mr Roby ($ 1781) 'those relative sentences [? clauses] in which qui=et is, or nam is, cum=et tum etc., being not really subordinate sentences [? clauses), are put in the infinitive', requires considerable modification. There is a very similar, but less common vacillation between infinitive and subjunctive in putting questions of the form quid facio? or quid facit ? into oratio obliqua. For this see Roby $ 1782 n. [The present passage (from qua to pluribus) might be regarded as really in oratio recta, the oratio obliqua having been abandoned. Cf. Fam. 5, 16, 4 saepissime et legi et audivi, nihil mali esse in morte; in qua si sensus resideat immortalitas illa potius quam mors ducenda sit; sin sit amissus, nulla videri miseria debeat quae non sentiatur.] R. L.

8

26 tamquam parturiat: a hesitating translation of wively in the passage

of Euripides; cf. n. on 49, 1. 33.

§ 46. alios: the Cyrenaics and Epicureans; cf. 52, 1. 28 homines deliciis diffluentes.

dicere aiunt: phrases like dicere dicunt are exceedingly rare in Cic., but Stuerenburg on Arch. 20 is wrong in saying that Planc. 35 supplies

the only instance; see Fam. 3, 7, 5; 9, 16, 5; 11, 20, 1. 27 inhumanius: cf. humanius in Fin. 2, 82 where Cic. is contrasting

the sordid view of friendship put forward by Epicurus himself, with the gentler views of his later followers.

quem etc.: 'a topic which I have briefly touched on already'. 28

ante: § 26 sq.

praesidi adiumentique: 'protection and assistance'; cf. 51, 1. 21. 29 expetendas: 'choiceworthy'; n. on 22, l. 24. 30 ut quisque minimum: see n. on 19, 1. 23.

haberet: in quotations Cic. often puts the past tense where we should expect the present; e.g. N.D. I, 40 idemque disputat aethera esse eum

quem homines Iovem appellarent. The change to quaerent is odd. 31 αρρctere: = επιθυμεϊν, έφίεσθαι; different from expetere = προαιρείσθαι.

mulierculae: this diminutive here expresses pity: often however contempt; cf. gúvalov,

1

2

4

§ 47.

P. 43.
praeclaram : ironical, as often; cf. Acad. 2, 94; Tusc. I, 49.

solem enim etc.: cf. closely $$ 20, 22, and for the metaphor Att. I, 10, 3 sol, ut est in tua quadam epistula, e caelo cecidit.

a dis: sc. datum. 3 quae : almost = quanti, as often; 'of what worth?'

blanda : 'enticing': an epithet often applied to the Epicurean ñdovn (voluptas).

reapse: cf. the common contrast between Abyw and èpyu. Corssen 112 847 quotes from Festus a fragment of a speech by Scipio where reque eapse occurs. We have i-p-se and in Plautus eo-p-se, eum-p-se, eam-p-se. All these words contain the enclitic particle pe which appears in nem-pe, quis-p-iam etc. : also the remains of a lost demonstrative pronoun once declined so-s, sa, sum, the same in fact as the definite article ó, in Greek. The only difference in meaning between reapse and the simple re is one of emphasis.

multis locis: not different in sense from 48, 1. 21 multis in rebus. For locis cf. 22, l. 29 nullo loco; 22, l. 36 pluribus locis ; 67, 1. 16 hoc loco. 5 consentaneum : 'consistent', i.e. 'with your other actions'. 6 rem: = pâyua; actionem =mpâčev "course of action'.

27 etc.

7 fugimus : 'intend to avoid'; the continuous sense of the present

tense frequently borders on a future meaning. 8 necesse est...aspernetur: ut omitted, as often in Cic. after necesse est,

oportet and other impersonal phrases; cf. n. on io, l. 4 cave; also on

17, l. 32 censeo petatis. 9 bonitas : ‘kindheartedness', as in it, l. 26; 29, 1. 23 etc. Little different from benevolentia in 19,

malitia : “evilheartedness', 'ill-will’.

temperantia: owppooúvn, self-control, particularly with regard to bodily pleasures.

videas: sc. si adsis, or something equivalent. For the missing protasis cf. n. on 5, 1, 24.

dolere: n. on 11, 1. 28.

imbellibus... Modestos : note the chiasmus (for which see n. on 23, 1. 10), and cf. n. on 5, 1. 19. Modestus is not ‘modest', but 'lawabiding'. It is here almost equivalent to our respectable'.

ergo etc.; it is therefore characteristic of the well-ordered mind'.

IO

II

I2

§ 48. 13 si cadit...qui profecto cadit : cf. 24, p. 35, 1. i si quae praeterea suntcredo autem esse multa.

cadit in: 'belongs to', 'affects', 'falls within the province of'; a favourite phrase with Cic. ; 2.g. Acad. 1, 42; Tusc. 3, 12 cadere, opinor,

in sapientem aegritudinem tibi dixisti videri ; below, n. on 100, 1, 7. 15 humanitatem : 'the milk of human kindness'.

arbitramur: the present indicative as in l. 7 fugimus; cf. also arbitramur in 24, 1. 29. 16 aliquas: note the difference to the sense which ullas for aliquas

would make—the difference between getting rid of some actual troubles

(aliquas) and all possible troubles (ne...ullas). 17 motu animi : to be taken in a wide sense, as the context shews, both

of emotions and intellectual perceptions. The Stoics taught that the wise man should be absolutely unaffected by emotion, which they regarded

as sinful. Cf. Tusc. iv, passim. 18 dico: this has for its real object the whole phrase inter pecudem et

hominem, which may be treated as though between inverted commas, as also the whole phrase from inter hominem to eiusdem. Sometimes Cic. uses non dicam for non dico in such sentences. Cf. also n. on ne dicam

in 82, 1. 17. 19 truncuin aut saxum : no doubt Cicero was thinking when he wrote

this of the line in the Odyssey (19, 163) ου γάρ από δρυός εσσι παλαιφάτου, oùd'ÅTÒ TÉTpns, which he imitates also in Acad. 2, 100. For truncus cf. N.D. 1, 84 qui potest esse in eius modi trunco sapientia? Seyffert copiously illustrates the use of truncus saxum ferreus and the like to denote stupidity and insensibility.

26 tamquam parturiat: a hesitating translation of wsively in the passage

of Euripides; cf. n. on 49, 1. 33.

§ 46. alios: the Cyrenaics and Epicureans; cf. 52, 1. 28 homines deliciis diffluentes.

dicere aiunt: phrases like dicere dicunt are exceedingly rare in Cic., but Stuerenburg on Arch. 20 is wrong in saying that nc. 35 supplies

the only instance; see Fam. 3, 7, 5; 9, 16, 5; 11, 20, I. 27 inhumanius: cf. humanius in Fin. 2, 82 where Cic. is contrasting

the sordid view of friendship put forward by Epicurus himself, with the gentler views of his later followers.

quem etc.: 'a topic which I have briefly touched on already'. 28

ante : § 26 sq.

praesidi adiumentique: “protection and assistance '; cf. 51, 1. 21. 29 expetendas: 'choiceworthy'; n. on 22, l. 24. 30 ut quisque minimum: see n. on 19, l. 23.

haberet : in quotations Cic. often puts the past tense where we should expect the present; e.g. N.D. I, 40 idemque disputat aethera esse eum

quem homines Iovem appellarent. The change to quaerent is odd. 31 appetere: = επιθυμεϊν, έφίεσθαι; different from expetere = προαιρείσθαι.

mulierculae: this diminutive here expresses pity: often however contempt; cf. júvalov,

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2

4

§ 47.

P. 43.
praeclaram: ironical, as often; cf. Acad. 2, 94; Tusc. I, 49.

solem enim etc.; cf. closely $S 20, 22, and for the metaphor Att. I, 10, 3 sol, ut est in tua quadam epistula, e caelo cecidit.

a dis: sc. datum. 3 quae : almost = quanti, as often; of what worth?'

blanda: 'enticing': an epithet often applied to the Epicurean vdovn (voluptas).

reapse: cf. the common contrast between Xbyw and èpyw. Corssen 112 847 quotes from Festus a fragment of a speech by Scipio where reque eapse occurs. We have i-p-se and in Plautus eo-p-se, eum-p-se, eam-p-se. All these words contain the enclitic particle pe which appears in nem-pe, quis-p-iam etc. : also the remains of a lost demonstrative pronoun once declined so-s, sa, sum, the same in fact as the definite article ở, in Greek. The only difference in meaning between reapse and the simple re is one of emphasis.

multis locis: not different in sense from 48, 1. 21 multis in rebus. For locis cf. 22, l. 29 nullo loco; 22, l. 36 pluribus locis; 67, l. 16 hoc loco. 5 consentaneum : 'consistent', i.e. 'with your other actions'. 6 rem : = pâyua; actionem = pâţiv "course of action'.

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