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necessariam: sc. esse; so Cic. often leaves out the esse of the perf. pass. inf. after constat; e. g. pro Balbo 5 quem constaret ab imperatore civitate donatum.

qui: the attraction of the relative in sentences like this is almost regular in Cicero, and indeed in most other writers of the best period; e.g. Pis. 57 levis est animi iustam gloriam, qui est fructus verae virtutis honestissimus, repudiare; Phil. 5, 39. Pompeio patre, quod imperi populi Romani lumen fuit, exstincto. Cf. 86, 1. 20; 18, 1. 7.

amicitiae fons : cf. 32, 11. 18—24.

inhumana: ‘unkindly'; immunis: 'unserviceable' (literally, free from munia or duties towards the state); superba : 'egotistic'. The last word is difficult to translate, as it combines the notions 'oppressive', 'proud', 'difficult of approach'.

quae: =cum ea; so in 70, 1. 15 quos=cum eos, and often.

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§ 51.

15 atque etiam : 'and again'.

utililatis causa : either these words are merely descriptive of anicitias (“imagine friendships which are based on expediency'), for which usage cf. n. on 20, p. 34, 1. 2, or else there is an ellipse of esse (“imagine friendships to be based on expediency'), for which ellipse cf. 18, 1. 7;

64, 1. 24. Fingunt as in 18, 1. 9 quae finguntur aut optantur. 16. amabilissimum: n. on 4, l. 12 maxime memorabilem. Trans. 'the

tenderest link in the chain of friendship’. 17 amor ipse: n. on 19, 1. 25 natura ipsa. 18 tum...si : cf. n. on 25, 1. 6.

ab amico est profectum: the word proficisci is often thus used in Cicero's letters of services passing between friends; e.g. Fam. 2, 19, 2 quaecumque a me ornamenta in te proficiscentur ; ib. 3, 1, 1 intellego omnia quae a me profecta sunt in te, tibi accidisse gratissima; so Nep.

Att. 9, 4.

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19 tantumque abest ut...ut: this particularly clumsy construction is

a very favourite one with Cic. Note that with all good writers the verb in such phrases (abest, afuit etc.) is always impersonal.

indigentiam: a rare word, scarcely occurring out of Cicero, who uses it above, 27, p. 36, 1. 31; 29, 1. 30 and Tusc. 4, 21.

opibus : 'because of their wealth'. Roby $ 1228.
praesidi : cf. 46, 1. 28.

alterius : Cic. uses indigere far oftener with a genitive than with an ablative, though the latter is commoner in silver Latin.

Above, 30, P: 38, l. 4 Africanus indigens mei ? 23 atque: here corrective=kaltoi, 'and yet? '.

haud sciam an : a well-attested though rare variant for haud scio an ; cf. De Or. 1,,255; 2, 72 and 209. Haud sciam is really the apodosis to an unexpressed protasis such as si quis ex me quaereret ; for which ellipse

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ne..

cf. n. on 5, 1. 24. The statement is thus conveyed in a more modest way than by haud scio an; cf. Cicero's frequent use of crediderim etc. for credo etc. Translate the whole sentence thus, 'And yet I rather think there is no advantage in friends never lacking aught'.

...quidem: the reason for the negative will be seen by referring to n. on 20, p. 34, l. 3 haud scio an.

nihil umquam oinnino deesse : Cic. is here striving to represent the Greek aủTápkns=self-sufficient, for which there was no one word in

Latin, 24 ubi: here=qua in re rather than quo in loco. Cf. Tusc. 5, 102 cur

igitur divitiae desiderentur, aut ubi paupertas beatos esse non sinit ? ib. 121 me conscripturum libros arbitror, ubi enim melius uti possumus hoc otio ? Trans. "where would our (=my) zealousness have displayed

its activity if etc. 25 numquam...nec... nec: cf. n. on 10, 1. 4. 26 Scipio eguisset : see however 30, P: 38, l. 4 quid? Africanus indi

gens mei?

§ 52. 28 homines deliciis diffluentes : 'men enervated by pleasure'; cf. De Or.

3, 131 otio diffluentes ; Off. 1, 106 diffluere luxuria ; Terent. Haut. 5, 1, 73 d. luxuria et lascivia ; Tusc. 2, 52 liquescimus fluimusque mollitia ; Liv. 7, 29, 5 fluentes luxu ; also the phrase fluxa corpora, and the uses of solvi dissolvi frangi debilitari and the like. Diffluere is rather rare, not occurring in Caesar, Nepos, Virgil, Horace or Ovid, and only once in Cicero's speeches. The homines meant are of course the Epi

cureans and Cyrenaics, as in 46, 1. 26. 29 quam...cognitam: 'of which they understand neither the practice nor the theory'.

habent cognitam : cf. compertum habere and the like. In such phrases we have the first step towards the conversion of habere into an auxiliary verb, which is completed in the Romance languages. Cf. also

97, p. 58, l. 4. 30 pro: so rightly spelt, not proh.

deorum fidem atque hominum : for the collocation cf. 32, l. 21 ut et usu eius fruantur et moribus, and n. on 8, 1. 21. 31 ut : 'on condition that', .so as neither to...'. Cf. Fin. 2, 74 quid

merearis, ut dicas te omnia voluptatis causa facturum? For the general sense cf. Aristotle Eth. Nic. 9, 9, 3 ουθείς γάρ έλoιτ’ αν καθ' αυτόν τα Trávt' éxelv åyalá. Cicero's words are so near to Aristotle's as almost to look like a translation. Nägelsbach § 96, 2 points out that Cic. here is trying to represent μήτε φιλών μήτε φιλούμενος, and gives some instructive remarks on the modes in Latin of replacing the present participle passive.

neque...nec: n. on 40, 1, 4. 32 circumfluere : Verr. 3, 9 istum rebus omnibus undique ereptis eluden

tem circumfluere atque abundare.

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P. 45. nimirum : some editions wrongly place the comma after instead of before nimirum, which always comes at the beginning and not at the end of a clause. Trans. “I mean a life in which.... Ni-mirum=ne mirum, where either ne =

= not, in which case est is understood and the phrase is a parenthetic clause, or ne=lest, and sit is to be supplied, ihere being then an ellipse to be filled out thus : ne mirum sit, hoc dico.

nulla fides : Ennius quoted in Off. 1, 26 nulla sancta societas nec fides regni; Bacon, Essay on Friendship, * Princes......cannot gather this fruit' (of friendship).

benevolentiae fiducia: in the best prose writers fides and fiducia nearly always take the objective genitive ('trust in '); the dative, however, is found in the poets, as Verg. Aen. 3, 69 fides pelago ; ib. 10, 152 fiducia rebus. Even with the phrases fulem facere, fiduciam facere, the construction in good prose is generally alicuius rei, not alicui rei.

§ 53. 3 quis enim etc.: cf. Off. 1, 97 si Aeacus aut Minos diceret oderint

dum metuant'; Phil. 1, 34 in fabulis ipsi illi qui oderint dum metuant'

dixerit. 5 dumtaxat ad tempus : ' but only for a season'. Dumtaxat in the best

writers is merely corrective, introducing an exception upon some word or words preceding, here on coluntur. Taxat is probably a subjunctive of the lost Latin aorist (here the weak aorist) from tangēre a form of tongēre (denken, think), on which word Festus p. 356 (ed. Müller) says . Aelius Stilo ait noscere esse, quod Praenestini tongitionem dicant pro notionem. Significat et latius dominari. Ennius alii rhetorica tongent'. Oscan forms tangino-m, tangino-d=scitum, scito (or iussu or decreto) are preserved. The formation of taxat will be then practically the same as that of λέξη. For the dropping of the nasal cf. σφίγγω, έσφιξα; θιγγάνω, Oifw. The original meaning of dumtaxat would thus be 'provided one knows the matter'. The verb taxare is only used in late Latin.

ad tempus : cf. 27, p. 37, 1. 2 ad quoddam tempus.

si...tum: n. on 25, 1. 6. 6

quam fuerint inopes : n. on 10, 1. 8 quam id recte. 7 quod: and this'; the sentence from tum to the end is really explanatory of quod.

dixisse ferunt: n. on 46, 1. 26 dicere aiunt.
exsulantem : almost parenthetic; explanatory of tum.

habuisset : note particularly the tense. 9 neutris gratiam referre posset : could make neither a return'. Gra

tiam here includes the notion of disservice as well as that of service. Cf. Att. 2, 9, 1 ut sciat hic noster Hierosolymarius traductor ad plebem quam bonam meis putidissimis orationibus gratiam rettulerit ; Sull. 47 nunc tecum sic agam, tulisse ut potius iniuriam quam rettulisse gratiam videar.

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IO illa superbia : sc. civ, 'with his well-known pride'. For superbia see n. on 50, 1. 12.

importunitate : "wrongheadedness', 'perversity'; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 62 non vides unius importunitate et superbia Tarquini nomen huic populo in odium venisse regium ?

atque :=kai unu, kai dr='now', or 'again’; so ac in 32, l. 15.
veros amicos: So 23, 1. 6 and often.

multorum opes praepotentium: n. on 30, p. 38, 1. 8 multae et magnae. Note the position of praepotentium ; put there it introduces a limitation on multorum, 'the power of many, I mean of those who are very

powerful'. 13 non solum ipsa: cf. Theocr. 10, 19 o'k aŭtos (not alone) tuplòs

ο πλούτος αλλα......χώφρόντιστος έρως, where the Scholiast quotes Menander, ο πλούτος τυφλόν, τυφλούς δ' ες αυτόν εμβλέποντας δεικνύει. Ρacuvius 366 (Ribbeck) fortunam insanam esse et caecam et brutam perhibent

philosophi ; Plin. 2, § 22 fortuna...a plerisque vero et caeca existimata. 15 fere: n. on 2, l. 14.

fastidio et contumacia : the kópos and ärn or ößpis of the Greek dra. matists. Trans. wantonness and stiffneckedness'. Seyffert quotes a curious passage of Plin. N. H. 16, § 134 (of plants) non omnia in omnibus locis nasci docuimus. Hoc alias fit fastidio, alias contumacia, alias

imbecillitate, 16 insipiente fortunato : Aristot. Rhet. 2, 16 talks of the evóntos eúdai

uwv. For the words cf. Q. fr. 1, 3, 1 quandam effigiem spirantis mor

tui ; Phil. 11, 20 nihil agenti privato ; Att. 12, 21, 5 fortis aegroti. 17 videre licet : when used parenthetically these words passed into vide

licet, which very word Lucret. I, 210 uses with the ordinary construction of videre licet.

antea : proleptic ; cf. n. on 7, 1.

commodis: 'affable'; commodus here has very much the sense of communis in 65, p. 48, l. 28; cf. Mur. 66 quemquamne existimas Catone commodiorem, communiorem, moderatiorem fuisse ad omnem rationem humanitatis ? Cornif. ad Herenn. 4, 25 contrasts the com

modus with the vir intolerabili superbia. 18 imperio potestate: originally potestas at Rome had a very wide meaning,

denoting all power exercised by public authority and so including inperium. Then as certain officers (consul praetor dictator) had imperium, while others (censor, aedile, etc.) had not, the word potestas came to be particularly used in connexion with the latter class of officers. Trans.

* by power and office'. 19 sperni: the words from sperni to novis are explanatory of immutari;

in such cases the connecting et is often left out-an usage called by grammarians åsyndeton explicativum. [Some edd. unjustly suspect the clause because it happens to be left out in the Paris Ms.]

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quid stultius: for omission of est cf. 22, 1. 20 n.

copiis...opibus: 51, 1. 20 opibus atque copiis. The three words differ hardly, if at all, in meaning, 'riches, resources, prosperity'. Plurimum posse 'to be very influential'; the ablative as in 51, 11. 20, 21.

cetera : proleptic, as in 16, 1. 21; cf. n. on 7, 1. 9.

equos...pretiosa : for the arrangement of these words see n. 57, 1. 7.

amicos: asyndeton adversativum again; see nn. on 5, l. 25; 13, 1. 16. 23 ut ita dicam : Cic. is apparently translating kriiua in such passages as

Χen. Mem. 2, 4, Ι πάντων κτημάτων κράτιστον αν είη φίλος. For ut ita dicam in a translation cf. n. on 49, 1. 33; for the metaphor in supellex Orat. 80 oratoria quasi supellex; Seneca Ep. 58, 18 ideae, propria Platonis supellex; Acad. 2, 31 and Sen. Ep. 2, 5, 8 vitae instrumentum.

nec cuius causa: sc. parent; laborant=solliciti sunt. For reading see Appendix. 25

istorum:=istarum rerum: n. on 50, 1. 7.

vicit viribus: the alliteration is evidently intentional; cf. Mil. 30 t'i victa vis, also Lael. 45, l. 23. 26 sua...possessio: put for suae by attraction; cf. 2, 1. 13. 27 quasi: n. on 3, p. 28, 1. 2. 28 deserta ab: cf. Fam. 5, 2, 10 desertus ab officiis tuis. 29 sed haec hactenus: a common formula for winding up one subject and

passing on to another; 'but enough of this'. So Div. 2, 50; Fam. 6, 2, 3.

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§ 56. 30 constituendi sunt etc. : for constituendum est etc. by attraction to the

construction of the clause qui sint etc. Cf. 63, 1. 5 perspiciuntur quam sint leves; also n. on 35, 1. 22 and De Or. 2, 137 quaeruntur qualia sint; ib. 243; N. D. 2, 115. Madvig on Fin. 5, 58 says this kind of attraction is used only by Cicero.

fines et quasi termini: finis was very commonly used in the metaphorical sense, terminus less commonly; hence the quasi, for which cf. 3, p. 28, 1. 2. For fines diligendi cf. causae diligendi in 30, p. 38, 1.9. video:=scriptum video; for the phrase see n. on 39, 1.

24. ferri: “are usually stated'.

Cf. 6, p. 29, 1. 4. unam : this was an opinion which the Epicureans managed to entertain. Though they based friendship on utility (Diog. Laert. 10, 120 και την φιλίαν διά τάς χρείας συνίστασθαι δε αυτήν κατά κοινωνίαν εν ταις ndovaês) still they said that the full benefit of friendship would not be reaped unless a man loved his friend just as himself. Cf. Fin. 1, 68: quocirca eodem modo sapiens erit affectus erga amicum, quo in se ipsum ; also the whole passage there from $ 65 to $ 70.

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