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alteram: this is the opinion of those who regard friendship as a barter of services; below, l. 14.

P. 46. pariter aequaliterque: n. on 32, 1. 22.

§ 57. 4 prorsus: goes with nulli, not with assentior; 'to none at all'. 6 nostra causa: many editions have nostri, and in the last edition of

Nägelsbach's Stilistik p. 506 the passage is still quoted with nostri. Cic. however never says mei tui sui nostri vestri causa, but always mea causa etc. The only passage in which the genitive is still retained by recent editors is Verr. 3, 121 sui causa, and many scholars, with whom I agree,

think that sua should be read there. Cf. Madvig on Fin. 2, 76. 7 faceremus etc.: for the sense cf. § 26.

causa amicorum: note the chiasmus in nostra causa...causa amicorum, and cf. 55, 1. 21. The repetition of causa (which is often left out in the second place, as in 46, 1. 29) is no doubt due to the desire to complete the chiasmus (for which see n. on 23, l. 10).

precari: note the omission of aliquid. 8 supplicare: sc. alicui.

acerbius invehi...insectari vehementius: chiasmus as above. 9 non satis: 'not very'.

multaeque res sunt etc.: not for multaeque aliae res sunt etc., but this clause repeats and gives more exactly the general statement contained in the words quam multa...amicorum.

viri boni etc.: it will be seen that in this section Cicero gives a peculiar turn to the meaning of the first opinion of the three above enumerated. He takes it to imply that a man must always act with regard to his friend just as he would in his own case, but the opinion itself probably had regard not to action but to feeling and implied that love between friends should be equal. It is in this sense that Cic. himself understands the opinion in Tusc. 3, 73 praeclarum illud est et, si quaeris, rectum quoque et verum ut eos qui nobis carissimi esse debeant aeque ac nosmet ipsos amemus. The opinion in fact was an answer to the question discussed by Aristotle in Eth. Nic. 9, c. 8 πότερον δεί φιλεϊν εαυτόν μάλιστα ή άλλον τινά and in the words of the next clause it definiebat amicitiam paribus voluntatibus.

§ 58. 13 definit: 'restricts friendship to an equal interchange of services and

feelings 14 exigue et exiliter: 'with minuteness and exactness'. Exig-uus and

exilis (for exig-i-lis) have a common element and an almost common meaning. I cannot accept Seyffert's extraordinary derivation of exilis from ex and ilia, though now backed by Corssen's authority (Ausspr. 11% 1003).



calculos: properly the pebbles used in the abacus for counting; here to an account'. Cf. faeneramur in 31, l. 11. 15 ratio acceptorum: cf. closely $$ 26, 31. For the neuter genitive plural as substantive see n. on 50, 1. 7.

datorum : the usual contrast to acceptorum in the language of Roman book-keeping is expensorum. The phrase accepti expensique ratio 'a

debtor and creditor account'is common. 16 divitior: Cic. uses this form, not ditior, and divitissimus, not ditissimus.

affluentior: cf. 52, p. 44, 1. 32 circumfluere.

vera amicitia: so in 22, p. 34, 1. 32, below, l. 26, and often. 17 observare etc.. Aristotle, Eth. Nic. 8, 7 and 8, 13, 1 lays down that

there is a class of friendships καθ' υπεροχήν where there cannot be an equal exchange of services.

restricte: Fin. 2, 42 nec tamen cur id tam parce tamque restricte faciant intellego. The simple stricte (which Halm has here) only occurs in very late Latin ; strictim has quite another sense.

neque enim etc.; i.e. if the friendship be true all such fears fall to the ground. 18 excidat...defluat...congeratur: the metaphors are all from measuring articles of commerce.

§ 59. ut quanti etc. : 'that each man should have the same value set on him by his friends that he sets upon himself'.

se ipse: n. on 5, 1. 28.

saepe enim etc. : ' for ofttimes in some persons either the spirit is more downcast than is meet, or the hopes of an increase in prosperity are too low'. The persons here meant are the small-souled men

(ulkpb yuxol) described by Aristot. Eth. Nic. 4, 3, 35. 23 eum:=talem virum.

ille: referring to the same person to which eum refers. Had ille been left out the subject of est might have been taken to be amicus supplied from amici in the preceding clause. It was necessary therefore to insert a pronoun, and according to Latin usage, the change from eum to ille was needed ; to repeat is would have been unusual. The following examples are precisely similar: Sest. 7 et ad eum filiam eius adduxit, ut ille aliquam partem maeroris sui deponeret; Prov. cons. I quonam me animo in eos esse oportet, cuius illi salutem pro pignore tradiderunt. So aŭrds and ékeivos often refer (in the same sentence) to the same person; e.g. Plato, Phaedo in B tas opas aút oês kpãouv

έχειν τοιαύτην ώστε εκείνους ανόσους είναι. . 24 eniti et efficere etc.: 'to strive so as to bring about an exaltation of

his friend's low spirits'. 25 inducat spem: inducere is a stage word, 'to bring on to the scene';

cf. n. on 4, 1. 9, and for the reading here see Appendix.



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26 si prius dixero: cf. Acad. 2, 64 aggrediar igitur si pauca ante

quasi de mea fama dixero. [Mr Shilleto (in ms note): si=quum sive postquam: cf. Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, r'. The words (l. 248) are iam ego re

vortar, si ex his quae volo exquisiero.] 28 vocem: "utterance'; a word particularly applied to any speech which is startling or remarkable.

inimiciorem amicitiae: oxymoron, for which see 23, 1. 7. 29 esset osurus: the subject of the verb is the same as the unexpressed

subject (r.và) of the infinitive amare; cf. 62, l. 32 ; 82, l. 20 ipsum ; also n. on p. 47, 1. 3 sibi ; n. on 48, l. 27; 39, p. 40, 1. 32. Cobet

mistakenly wishes to read esses here. 30

adduci: by a common idiom, a positive verb (dicebat) must be supplied from negabat above.

quem ad modum putaretur : sc. diclum esse. 31 Biante: the saying is ascribed to Bias of Priene by Aristotle Rhet.

2, 13, 23 (whence Cic., who knew the Rhetoric well, probably took it) and Diog. Laert. 1, 87, but to Chilon, another of the seven, by Gellius, Noct. Att. 1, 3, 30. The sentiment was put by Sophocles into the mouth of Ajax in the lines quoted on 45, l. 19, and is repeated by

Demosth. Aristoc. p. 660. 32 septem: n. on 7, 1. 9.

impuri: asyndeton adversativum ; n. on 13, l. 16. omnia ad potentiam revocantis : cf. 32, l. 14 ad voluptatem omnia referunt ; 'one who regarded everything as it affected his own influence'.



P. 47. amicus ei : n. on 39, 1. 25.

cupere et optare: 'to desire and pray'. For optare see n. on 18, 1. 8. 3 peccet: n. on 37, p. 40, l. 15.

sibi : the person meant is the same as the unexpressed. subject of the infinitives cupere and optare; see above, p. 46, 1. 29. It is rather remarkable to find sibi following immediately on a verb the subject to which is a different person.

tamquam: qualifies the metaphor in ansas; cf. n. on 3, p. 28, 1. 2 quasi.

ansas ad: the usual construction is ansam dare, or praebere alicuius



ad reprehendendum: 'for criticism'; it is possible however that reprehendendum has here the literal sense 'to catch hold of' as in Acad. 2, 139 revocat virtus vel potius reprehendit manu.

$ 60. 6 ad tollendam amicitiam valet : 'has the effect of sweeping away




7. praecipiendum fuit : sc. ei cuiuscumque est hoc praeceptum.

ut eam diligentiam ut: for the very inelegant, but common subordination of one ut-clause to another see my n. on pro Balbo 20. 8 comparandis : so Fin. 1, 66 amicitias comparare.

ut ne: n. on 42, l. 26.

minus felices: euphemism for infelices; so minus iustae in 61, l. 16; nec facillime in 99, p. 58, l. 29.

ferendum : Diog. Laert. 1, 60 quotes a saying of Solon : povs μη ταχύ κτώ ούς δ' αν κτήση, μη αποδοκίμαζε. Seyfert qu. Isocr. ad Demon. βραδέως μεν φίλος γίγνου, γενόμενος δε πειρώ διαμένειν. Aristot. Eth. Nic. 9, 3 discusses the causes which may justify the dissolution of friendships.

tempus: = kalpov, an occasion. Trans. 'thought that we should put up with it rather than devise an occasion for a quarrel'.

§ 61. 13 his igitur etc. : 'I think then we must adopt such limits as that...'. 15 sine ulla exceptione communitas: n. on 20, p. 34, 1. 2. 17 aut caput agatur aut fama: for the arrangement of the words cf.

n. on 8, I. 21. Caput is status; the cases alluded to are those which might lead to deminutio capitis. In fama the reference is to trials involving infamia as part of the punishment which may result from

them. 18 declinandum de via sit: on the nice question of casuistry, how far

one is to condone the wrong doings of a friend, Laelius is conveniently vague, as Gellius in his criticism of this passage (Noct. Att. 1, 3, 14) complains. The passage becomes the more unsatisfactory when we go back to Laelius' first principle in § 18. nisi in bonis amicitiam esse non posse. Aristotle's discussion of the matter is more careful though still vague: Eth. Nic. 9, 4, 3 άρ ούν ευθύς διαλυτέον, η ου πάσιν, αλλά τοϊς ανιάτoις δια την μοχθηρίαν και επανόρθωσιν δ' έχoυσι, μάλλον βοηθητέον εις το ήθος, ή την ουσίαν...δόξειε δ' ών ο διαλυόμενος ουδέν άτοπον ποιείν. Roman popular morality required a man to go much greater lengths in assisting a friend than would be allowed even by the popular morality of our time; this is expressed in the words modo ne summa turpitudo

sequatur. 19 est quatenus: cf. est ubi, est cum and the like; also n. on 29, 1. 28.

nec vero etc.: it is not at first sight easy to see the connexion of the whole of this sentence with what goes before. 'Nor, however, must we be careless of our reputation [i.c. in our anxiety to serve a friend), nor yet must we suppose that the goodwill of our fellow-countrymen is an unimportant weapon in the conduct of public affairs [i.e. we must not by going too great lengths in compliance with a friend run the risk of losing the goodwill of our fellow-countrymen and of so becoming useless as public servants), though it is disgraceful to earn that goodwill by wheedling and flattery [i. e. we may pay too high a price for public favour]: we must by no means spurn virtue [i.e. in our desire



to help a friend), which has affection for its constant attendant [i. e. if we stick to virtue we shall have our reward).

telum: in Fam. 7, 16, 1 Cic. quotes an old line : usquequaque sapere oportet : id erit telum acerrimum.

blanditiis et assentando: it is not often that Cic. makes the gerund thus range with a noun, though the usage is exceedingly common in Tacitus and his contemporaries. Cf. Fin. 3, 34 bonum non accessione neque crescendo aut cum ceteris comparando sentimus; also, a little lower, genere non crescendo.

§ 62. 24 cuius omnis sermo erat de amicitia : from whom entirely proceeded

the discourse concerning friendship’; not whose whole discourse was

of friendship’: 25 diligentiores : ‘more painstaking', i.e. 'than in friendship’. 26 capras et ovis: imitated from Xenoph. Mem.

4, 4 οράν έφη τους πολλούς των μεν άλλων κτημάτων, και πάνυ πολλών όντων, το πλήθος ειδότας, των δέ φίλων, ολίγων όντων, αγνοούντας; ib. 2, 4, Ι επιμελομέ

νους δε παντός μάλλον οράν έφη τους πολλούς και φίλων κτήσεως. 27 non posse dicere: n, on 19, 1. 28; cf. also 73, 1. 5 potuit...non potuit. 28 in amicis: asyndeton; cf. n. on 13, 1. 16. 29 quasi signa quaedam et notas: a tentative translation of the Greek

onueioy or kpitýpcov, which Cic. elsewhere renders by iudicium (Academ. passim) or nota merely (Acad. 2, 84); cf. also N. D. 1, 12 certa iudicandi et assentiendi nota. In Xen. Mem. 2, 6 Socrates describes the signs that should lead to the choosing of a friend.

firmi etc. : these adjectives describe the vir gravis, gravitas being the chief part of the ideal Roman character. 32 expertum : n. on 59, p. 46, 1. 29 osurus.

praecurrit : poável, 'outstrips the judgment'.




§ 63. P. 48. sustinere : ' to check the kindly impulse as one would a headlong race’. For sustinere 'to pull up' cf. Acad. 2, 94 ut agitator callidus equos sustinebo; Att. 13, 21, 3; Fam. 9, 8, 1 me sustinebam. Cf. 35, 1. 18.

quo etc. : ' in order that we may find the characters of our friends thoroughly tested by partial friendship (i.e. before we enter on full friendship) like well-broken steeds '. Notice the following points : (1) periclitatis, though from a deponent verb, is used in a passive sense, like meditatus and a large number of other deponent participles, the usage being particularly common in Cicero; (2) amicitia is an ablative of the means, dependent on periclitatis ; (3) ex aliqua parte is a phrase

qualifying amicitia, for which usage cf. n. on 20, p. 34, 1. 2. 3 utamur...temptatis : cf. 68, l. 29 utatur...intractato. The editors

here quote Theognis 119 ου γαρ αν είδείης ανδρός νόον ούτε γυναικός, ,

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