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in: as in 9, p. 30, 1. 3. 19 confertur : notice the singular verb, though there are really three

subjects (ingenium virtus praestantia), and cf. n. on 14, l. 24 adessä.




§ 71. coniunctionisque : the coniunctio is the natural association produced by kinship and the like, mentioned in § 19.

superiores: for the construction superior esse in aliqua re cf. pro Balbo 35 in foedere inferior.

non dolere: 'not to feel a pang'. The true friendships, Aristotle says, are free from offence (ådiáßantol, Eth. Nic. 8, 6, 7; avéykanto, ib.

9, 2, 7). 24 eoque magis: so in 2, 1. 15 et eo magis. 25 habere quod: for the omission of the antecedent to the relative cf. 29, 1. 28 n.

cum labore aliquo suo: 'with some expenditure of toil on their part'. 26

queant: queo is rarely used in positive sentences by good writers, but the usage is well attested within narrow limits; cf. Tusc. 5, 108; Cat. m. 32; De rep. 2, 6; also found in Sallust and Columella.

odiosum genus: in apposition with plerique; cf. 67, 1. 19; 79, 1. 29. 27 officia exprobrantium: who offensively put forward their services'.

Seyffert quotes Demosth. De Cor. 316 voul5w tòp pèr ell madóvra deîv μεμνήσθαι τον πάντα χρόνον, τον δ' εύ ποιήσαντα ευθύς επιλελήσθαι αυτών, ει δει τον μεν χρηστου τον δε μη μικροψύχου ποιείν έργον ανθρώπου. το δε τας ιδίας ευεργεσίας υπομιμνήσκειν και λέγειν σμικρού δείν ομοϊόν εστι τα Óveldlgelv; Ter. Andr. I, 1, 16 nam istaec commemoratio quasi exprobratio et immemoris benefici; Seneca, De beneficiis 2, 10, 4 inter prima praecepta et maxime necessaria sit, ne umquam exprobrem, immo ne admoneam quidem. Haec enim beneficii inter duos lex est: alter statim

oblivisci debet dati, alter accepti numquam. 28 commemorare : n. on 15, 1. 12.

§ 72. 29 submittere se: lit. "to let themselves down', i.e. 'to be modest'. 30 sic etc.; i.e. sic debent ei qui superiores sunt extollere eos qui sunt

inferiores. 31 contemni: 'slighted' or 'neglected'. Contemnere is hardly ever so

strong in meaning as our word 'despise', which is commonly used to

translate it. 32 fere: n. on 2, 1. 14; contingit: n. on 8, 1. 30. 33 qui: 'and they'.

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§ 73. 3 sustinere : Seyffert rightly explains sustinere here to mean alicui oneri

parem esse, quoting Verr. 3, 189 nam cum oratori onus aliquod imponitur, orationis ipsius vis ac ratio consideranda est, quid ea sustinere, quid pati, quid efficere possit ac debeat. Trans. 'you must confer on each person just so much as you in the first place can secure to him, next as he whom you love and aid is able to bear'. For the omission of possit to be supplied from possis cf. n. on 30, p. 38, 1. 5.

non... neque : cf. n. on 10, l. 4. Notice that there is a slight anacoluthon, the form of the sentence being changed, and for the proper clause introduced by a second neque the clauses introduced by ut are substituted. Cf. n. on 45, 1. 19 partim. The unemphatic tu should be noticed; it is our English 'you' for 'one'.

excellas : cf. excellentiae in 69, p. 50, 1. 1. 5 perducere : lit. 'to bring through', i.e. as Seyffert explains, through

all the various grades. Producere (which some editions have) is simply 'to advance' without the notion of gradation.

potuit...non potuit : cf. n. on 19, 1. 28. In Tusc. 4, 40 Rupilius is said to have taken his brother's defeat greatly to heart; and Pliny, Nat. Hist. 7, § 122 (where some recent edd. have Rutilium wrongly) enlarges the story by making him die immediately on hearing the result of the

election. 6 efficere : facere would not have done here, since facere aliquem con

sulem means 'to vote for some one's election as consul',



§ 74. amicitiae iudicandae sunt: =iudicandum est de amicitiis 'a decision must be come to about friendships', though Cicero would not say iudicare amicitias for de amicitiis.

corroboratis...aetatibus : 'when strength and steadiness have come over the mind and life'. Seyffert wrongly insists on taking these ablatives (which are ablatives absolute) as ablatives of measure after iudicandae sunt by the strengthening and steadying of the mind and life'. Had Cic. meant this he would have written corroborandis. But how can it be said that advancing years supply a measure or standard for judging about friendships? The confirmata or corroborata aetas is the time of life immediately succeeding youth, the ka@eptnavia Akla of Thucydides; cf. pro Caelio 41 qua varietate non modo haec aetas sed iam corroborata caperetur. The opposite expression is infirmissimum tempus aetatis in Acad. 2, 9; Flacc. 5.

habere: the construction is carried on as though oportet iudicare de amicitiis or something similar had preceded ; old edd. indeed insert oportet, which is unnecessary. In Fin. 2, 103 quod si dies notandus fuit, eumne potius quo natus an eum quo sapiens factus est the words oportet notare have to be supplied from notandus. In his n. there Madvig excellently illustrates the usage both from Latin and from Greek.



isto modo: 'on that principle'; so ista ratione commonly, and occasionally ista condicione, as in De Or. 1, 101.

nutrices et paedagogi : generally at Rome these were slaves. 13 vetustatis: n. on 68, 1. 26. 14

quidem: here concessive, 'I admit', as in 13, 1. 16.

alio quodam modo: so in 7, l. 6. For quodam see n. on 6, p. 29, 1. 1; for the constr. 68, l1. 25, 26. For the reading aestimandi see

Appendix. 15 disparis mores etc.: diversity of character is accompanied by diver

sity of taste, and dissimilarity of taste severs friendships'. Mores is undoubtedly in the accusative, not, as Lahm. suggests, in the nominative =homines disparibus moribus; homines secuntur studia is certainly not Latin. For the morum similitudo as a necessary condition of friendship cf. SS 15, 27, 33 (mutari...mores), 50; also Aristotle Eth. Nic. 8, 1, 6 ouocóτητά τινα τιθέασιν αυτήν (φιλίαν) και τους ομοίους φίλους; ib. 8, 3,

6 τελεία δ' έστιν ή των αγαθών φιλία και κατ' αρετήν ομοίων; ib. 8, 8, 5 ή δε ισότης και ομοιότης φιλότης και μάλιστα μεν ή των κατ' αρετήν ομοιότης;

ib. 9, 3, 3 Tò otoCop Tạ ouoiq of ov. 17 boni...possunt : cf. 18, 1. 3.

distantia: a vox Ciceroniana. The word is in good Latin never used of distance in space. Aristotle several times discusses the question how great a difference in character or other circumstances is required to render friendships impossible. Cf. Eth. Nic. 8, 7, 4 dnov käy πολύ διάστημα γίγνηται αρετής ή κακίας ή ευπορίας ή τινος άλλου ου γάρ έτι φίλοι εισίν, αλλ' ουδ' αξιoύσιν...ακριβής μεν ούν εν τούτοις ουκ έστιν ορισμός, έως τινος οι φίλοι πολλών γάρ αφαιρουμένων έτι μένει, πολύ δε χωρισθέντος, οίον του θεού, ουκ έτι.


§ 75.



quaedam: n. on 6, p. 29, 1. 1.

nec enim: followed by et saepe instead of nec; for the slight anacoluthon cf. 79, ll. 32, 33; 104, ll. 20, 21.

fabulas: n. on 70, l. 12 ; cf. Off. 3, 94 ut redeamus ad fabulas. 23 Neoptolemus: or Pyrrhus, son of Achilles by Deidamia, daughter

of Lycomedes, king of Scyros. He appears in the Philoctetes as an ambassador to that hero, without whose bow it was fated Troy should not fall. Welcker thinks that Cicero here refers to a scene in a lost

play of Sophocles entitled αι Σκύριαι. . 25 magnae res: ' great tasks'. For incidunt cf. 33, 1. 5. 27 mollisque : the que merely connects infirmus with mollis and does

not correspond with the first et. [In Cicero and the best writers et and que do not correspond.] To shew this trans. 'is not only weak

and effeminate, but also ...'. 28 parum iustus : ‘far from reasonable'; parum almost=non, as minus

in 23, l. 13.

§ 76. atque...impetruri: this is a little summary of $S 73–75. Such summaries are often introduced by atque ='now', as in Acad. 1, 43.

in omni re:'on every occasion'. 32 iam enim etc. : the verae amicitiae or perfectae are sempiternae ; see

32, l. 28 and Aristot. Eth. Nic. 8, 3, 7 Ý tolaÚTn Pilia (sc. Tv αγαθών) μόνιμος εστίν. The question of the dissolution of friendships was partially discussed in SS 32 sq. and is considered by Aristotle in Eth. Nic. 9, 3.

sapientium:=virorum bonorum as defined in $ 21. 33 volgaris amicitias: these differ only in degree from the verae ami

citiae, being based on a less degree of virtus, since virtus a caritate volgi non abhorret (50, 1. 14), hence they must not be confounded with the φίλιαι based on το ηδύ and το ωφέλιμον which Aristotle so often discusses. These latter friendships Cicero refuses to deal with ($ 58 and elsewhere).

oratio delabitur: so 100, 1. 8 oratio defluxit, and cf. Qu. Fr. 1, 1, 18 ad praecipiendi rationem delapsa est oratio mea. For the sense also § 100 is to be compared.


P. 52. erumpunt in: 'break out upon’. tum...tum: here purely temporal, at one time, at another'. So in

13, 1. 18.


alienos : n. on 19, 1. 25.

quorum:=talium ut, hence redundet not redundat. 3 usus :=consuetudinis, kolvwvlas, as in 32, l. 21; 2, 1. 15 utebare multaum.

eluendae: the word eluere, lit. 'to wipe out', is particularly used of disgrace or crime; e. g. eluere maculam in Sest. 63; Verr. 5, 121; scelus in Verg. Aen. 6, 742.

ut Catonem dicere audivi: as I have been told Cato used to say', not ‘as I have heard Cato say' which would require dicentem or cum diceret; cf. 88, 1. 14.

dissuendae etc.: cf. Off. I, 120 amicitias magis decere censent sapientes sensim diluere quam repente praecidere; below, 78, 1. 19 exstinctae potius quam oppressae. Observe magis in the one place and potius in the other, for which cf. n. on 27, 1. 31.

exarserit: from exardescere, the verb exardere occurring only in very late Latin, as in the Vulgate. The metaphorical use is exceedingly

common in Cicero; cf. 29, 1. 26. 6 rectum...honestum : there is no appreciable difference in meaning

en these words. statim: cf. Aristot. Eth. Nic. 9, 3, 2 åp oŮv Oùs dialutéov Ÿ πάσιν αλλά τους ανιάτoις δια την μοχθηρίαν. .


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§ 77. 7 aut morum aut studiorum : the first aut corresponds to aut before in

rei publicae. It is exceedingly likely that the second aut should be

changed into et ; cf. 74, 1. 19 morum studiorumque. 8 commutatio ut fieri solet: 33, l. 6 mutari etiam mores hominum

saepe. 9 in rei publicae partibus : 'in connexion with political parties'; lit. 'in the divisions of the commonwealth'.

communibus :=volgaribus in 76, p. 25, 1. 33. 14 Q. Pompei etc.: the grandfather of the Pompeius mentioned in $ 2;

he raised himself to the consulship as a novus homo in 141 B.C. (Brut. 96; Verr. 5, 181). Laelius was a candidate and Pompeius was said to have promised Scipio that he would not stand himself but support

Laelius. 16 Metello: i.e. Macedonico, the praetor of 148, who commanded in

Greece till 146, when he returned and was the leader of the anti-Scipionic party. The quarrel, which was very famous, began with the despatch of Mummius, who was connected with the Scipios, to command in Achaia. Metellus became consul in 143 after two failures, and commanded against Viriathus. In 131 he was censor and lived till 115.

He was an augur; hence collega of Laelius. 17 et: this does not correspond with ac, but graviter ac moderate go

together and form one expression. Et and ac do not correspond in Cic.; cf. n. on 75, 1. 27.


§ 78. 18 quam ob rem...iniuriam: these sentences summarise and emphati

cally repeat the sense of the two preceding sections. 19 ut exstinctae etc. : 'that the friendships may seem to have burnt out

rather than to have been extinguished'. Cf. Cat. m. 71 adulescentes mihi mori sic videntur ut cum aquae multitudine flammae vis opprimitur; senes autem sic, ut sua sponte, nulla adhibita vi, consumptus ignis exstinguitur. cavendum vero: for the omission of est cf. n. on 14, 1.

31. 23 tolerabiles : agreeing with the last only of the three words iurgia maledicta contumeliae.

honos tribuendus: so Aristot. Eth. Nic. 9, 3, 5 âp oův ojo èv ållóτερον προς αυτόν εκτέον η ει μή εγεγόνει φίλος μηδέποτε, ή δεί μνείαν έχειν της γενομένης συνηθείας ; και καθάπερ φίλοις μάλλον ή δθνείοις οιόμεθα δεϊν χαρίζεσθαι ούτω και τους γενομένοις απονεμητέον τι διά την προγεγενη- . μένην φιλίαν, όταν μή δι' υπερβολήν μοχθηρίας ή διάλυσις γέ

νηται. 26 omnino: here ='to sum up'; 'looking at the matter as a whole'. 27 una cautio est : for the form of expression cf. Acad. 2, 51 omnium

inanium visorum una depulsio est; Att. 12, 32, i una est vitatio ; ib.

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