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and foreigners, relatives and strangers. Friendship is a stronger thing than natural association. § 20, 21. It means entire agreement coupled with kindliness and affection, and is the most glorious gift of the gods, though some misguided men prefer riches, pleasure, and the like. Virtue in the ordinary, not the Stoic sense, is the essential condition of friendship. SS 22—24. The splendour of friendship almost passes description; in particular, it never allows hope to die. All life depends on friendship; Empedocles even says it is the bond of the universe. Even the vulgar do homage to it as exemplified in the persons of Orestes and Pylades on the stage.'

"Now I have said all I can, for the rest you must go to the Greeks.

§ 25. Fannius and Scaevola insist on a further exposition.

C. 2. Laelius, § 26. "What is the foundation of friendship? Nature, not utility. $ 27. The inclination to affection appears in the lower animals, and is especially conspicuous in man, when between two individuals there is compatibility of disposition and virtue draws them together. SS 28-30. Virtue can even attract us in an enemy; how much more in the men we know and meet? Reciprocal services strengthen affection but do not originate it. Africanus, for example, could have done withou: my services. $ 31. Friendship is not based on the hope of reward. § 32. The philosophers who deduce everything from the desire for pleasure are wrong. True friendships are eternal, which they would not be if they sprang from so shifting a thing as utility

C. 3. $ 33. 'Scipio said that it was very hard for a friendship to last a lifetime, owing to the arising of differences of opinion, or a change of disposition.' $$ 34, 35. Enumeration of occurrences which may break friendship.

C. 4. $$ 36—76. This part of the discourse may be thus subdivided :

a. $$ 36—44. The question how far a friend is to go in

helping his friend. B. SŞ 45—55. Polemic against some false statements of

the Greeks.

C. 4.

y: SS 56–61. How to define the right attitude of mind

towards a friend. 8. $$ 62–66. Care necessary in choosing friends. 6. $$ 67, 68. Are old friends to be preferred to new ? $ $$ 69–76. Perfect equality is necessary in friendship.

a. § 36. 'How far is one to go with one's friend? Were the friends of Coriolanus, Vecellinus, Maelius, bound to go all lengths with them? $ 37. Blossius was prepared to burn the Capitol had Ti. Gracchus commanded it; it is, however, never justifiable to commit crime for the sake of a friend. § 38. Had we to do with ideal characters the difficulty would not arise, but we have to do with actual men. § 39. The best Romans have always placed patriotism before friendship. $ 40. Friends must neither ask from each other nor do for each other anything base. In these degenerate days many politicians contradict this rule. § 41. We must look for still worse things in the future. SS 42, 43. When a friend takes to an unpatriotic course he ought to be abandoned ; if this were done, revolutions would be impossible. § 44. Our first law for friendșhip is that honour must govern it, and that the authority oi friends in admonition and expostulation should meet with due recognition.'

C. 4. B. $ 45. 'Some Greeks say that friendships should not be too close lest they lead into trouble and anxiety. $.46. Others declare that friendship is only sought after for the sake of assistance and freedom from care. § 47. These theories destroy friendship, since pain as well as pleasure is inseparable from it. § 48. Those who try to free themselves from all emotion aim at an absurdity. $$$49–51. Utility has its place in friendship, but nature is the foundation. $$ 52—55. These Greek speculators must be discountenanced; who would choose to abound with prosperity if deprived of friends? That would be the life of a despot, the most miserable of all lives. It is folly to desire all possessions excepting the most valuable-a friend.

$$ 56–61. Three false definitions of friendly feeling are criticised and rejected; Laelius then promises to give

C. 4. y.

his own, but first quotes Scipio's condemnation of a saying attributed to Bias, that in loving a friend one ought to keep in view the possibility of hating him some day or other. Then he gives his definition of the proper attitude of friend to friend. 'If friends are of high character, they should have all things in common; if one swerves from rectitude and endangers his life or reputation, the other should support him, if he can do so without incurring extreme disgrace.'

C. 4. 8. $ 62. "Men are utterly careless in choosing friends. $ 63. It is wise not to confer friendship without some experience and trial of the persons on whom it is to be conferred. The mark of a true friend is that he prefers friendship to all else in the world. $ 64. Ambition is the greatest test; change of fortune the next. $$ 65, 66. One must look for loyalty above all things, then frankness, affability and compatibility, and unsuspiciousness; then sweetness of character and conversation.'

C. 4. E. $$ 67, 68. "The older a friendship is, the more valuable it is, yet new and promising friendships are not to be rejected.

C. 4. Š$$ 69, 70. "The man of superior station or advantages of whatever kind must treat his friends as equals. $$ 71,72. The friend who is at a disadvantage must be careful not to bear himself as an inferior. § 73. In imparting advantages to a friend, you must look both to your own powers and to the character and position of your friend. $ 74. The friendships we most value are those formed in mature life; we are not bound to give the first place to the friends of our boyhood, though they must not be neglected. $75. We must not allow any violence of temper to prevent a friend from imparting to us a benefit.'

C. 5. § 76. 'In friendships of the commoner order, the faults of one sometimes bring disgrace on the other. Such friendships must be gently severed. $$ 77, 78. If a disagreement of views developes itself, we must avoid allowing the friendship to change into open enmity. § 78. To escape these mishaps we must be extremely cautious in entering on friendships. $$ 79, 80. Men by looking first for advantage, miss the true friend. $ 81. Even the beasts might teach us that this is wrong. 82. Friendship

must rest on similarity; the theory that friends should supplement each other's defects is mistaken. $$ 83—85. Looking to virtue chiefly, you must judge the friend's character before you begin to love him, not after. § 86. The prevalent carelessness in choosing friends is the more remarkable, because friendship is the one thing on whose value all men are agreed. $$ 87-89. It is indeed a necessity of existence; yet we do not allow this natural law its full force. SS 89, 90. We must be able to hear and tell the truth without offence. SS 91–94.

Flattery is the curse of friendship. $95. The true friend may be known from the flatterer with a little care.' § 96. Historical examples. S$ 97—100. “Flattery has only power over him who has an appetite for it; open flattery is not so dangerous as that which is masked.'

D. $ 100. 'To sum up, virtue is the only origin and bond of friendship. § 101. It is this which has attracted me to my friends throughout life, to you young men as well as others. § 102. It would be well if friends could begin life and end life together, but such are the chances of our mortal state that we must ever be forming new friendships. $S 103, 104. My perfect intimacy with Scipio has been the greatest blessing of my life. I end by exhorting you to value virtue above everything else, and friendship next.'

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