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personas tan gravis illigari. Quasi vero clarorum virorum aut tacitos congressus esse oporteat aut ludicros sermones aut rerum colloquia leviorum!

pergratum mihi feceris si etc.: cf. Att. 1, 20, 7 per mihi, per, inquam, gratum feceris si in hoc tam diligens fueris quam soles.

spero item Scaevolae : cf. 7, 1, 14 credo ex hoc item Scaevola.
soles: sc. respondere.
ceteris: cf. n. on 7, 1. 9 reliqua.

cum ex te quaeruntur: for reading see Appendix. For the personal quaeruntur put in the place of the impersonal quaeritur see n. on 35,

Trans. 'when questions concerning them are put to you'. disputaris : cf. n. on 1, 1. 6.

qualem existimes, quae praecepta des: these two clauses are explanatory of quid. Taking with them the words de amicitia quid sentias the whole may be translated, 'your opinion concerning the theory and practice of friendship’. In cc. V-VII, which correspond to qualem existimes, Laelius gives his view of the nature and definition of friendship; in cc. XI-XXVI he lays down practical rules and maxims con

cerning it. 23 mihi vero: this form of emphatic assent is common in Cicero's dialogues; e.g. Academica 1, 14; ib. 25; ib. 41.

id ipsum tecum agere: 'to make the same request of you’. 1. 4 cum enim saepe mecum ageres. 2.4

antevertit: lit. "turned in front', or 'thrust in front', i.e. his request or his speech. Here trans. 'anticipated me', 25 gratum admodum:=pergratum of l. 19.

Cf. 4,

§ 17. 26 non gravarer: 'would raise no objection'; cf. Cluent. 69 primo

gravari coepit quod... 27 praeclara res: cf. 4, 1. 5 digna mihi res visa est. 28 quis ego sum aut... : for the almost tautological form of the question

cf. Acad. 2, 32 nec vero satis constituere possum quod sit eorum consilium aut quid sibi velint; Nepos, Dat. 6, 6'cum quid ageretur aut quare fieret ignorarent. For the sense, cf. Fam. 9, 18, 3 i psa illa si quae fuit in me facultas orationis ; Arch. 13 oratio et facultas. The word facultas implies readiness acquired by practice.

doctorum: here philosophers by profession as in 21, l. 13; cf. the words below, eis qui ista profitentur. 29 eaque: Nauck rightly remarks that Graecorum is a substantive and

not merely an epithet of doctorum; otherwise Cic. would have written eorumque for eaque. Eaque=kai Tauta.

ut eis...subito: the practice belonged first to the sophists and rhetoricians, then to the philosophers of the New Academy. Cf. Fin. 2, I sophistae...quorum e numero primus est ausus Leontinus Gorgias in conventu poscere quaestionem, id est iubere dicere qua de re quis vellet audire.

Audax negotium, dicerem impudens, nisi hoc institutum postea translatum ad nostros philosophos esset; De Or. I, 102 quid? mihi nunc vos tamquam alicui Graeculo otioso et loquaci et fortasse docto atque erudito

quaestiunculam de qua meo arbitratu loquar, ponitis ; so ib. 3, 127. quamvis subito: 'however suddenly';=tam subito quam vis.

magnum opus est: so in De Or. I, 103 Cicero says of Gorgias permagnum quidem suscipere ac profiteri videbatur. For magnum opus=a

great task, cf. Academ. 2, 121; Tusc. 3, 79 and 84; Orat. 75. 31 quae disputari de amicitia possunt: this refers to Fannius' words

above, l. 21 de amicitia disputaris. There is a contrast between disputari and hortari ; Laelius at first declares himself unable to give a scientific and philosophical discussion of friendship; he can only give

some practical directions concerning it. 32 censeo petatis: censeo is wrongly explained by most editors (as

Seyffert, Lahmeyer, Nauck) to be parenthetic, petatis being supposed to be a subjunctive used in the hortative sense. Petatis, however, is directly dependent on censeo, ut being suppressed, as it often is with curo, caveo, sinere, hortari, and many other verbs; cf. also n. on 1o, 1. 4 cave; 47, 1. 8 necesse. Sometimes the ut is inserted, as in Caes. B. C. 1, 67, 1; Cic. Phil. 3, 37.

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P. 33. anteponatis etc.: for the sense cf. § 104.

nihil est enim : note enim, third word in the clause; had it stood second est would not have been so emphatic. Cf. 50, 1. 7.

tam naturae aptum: for the separation of tam from aptum cf. n. on 10, 1. 8 quam id recte. The phrases naturae aptus, ad naturam aptus are common in Cic. (as Fin. 4, 46; Off. 1, 100) and are of Stoic origin. The Stoics defined virtue as being Tôn Dúo el ópoloyovuévws Sîv (naturae convenienter vivere). Cf. below 19, l. 21 naturam optimam bene vivendi ducem.

vel secundas vel adversas : so Cic. says of literature (Arch. 16) secundas res ornant, adversis perfugium ac solacium praebent.

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§ 18. 3 nisi in bonis: 'except in the case of good men'. Cf. 65, p. 49, 1. 3, where inter bonos corresponds to in bonis here.

neque...reseco: ‘nor do I probe the question to its roots', i.e. the question whether only good men can be friends. The Stoics had declared that only perfect men (sapientes, copol or otrovdaion=boni, since none but the copos is otrovdałos) could be friends. So Diog. Laert. 7, 124 την φιλίαν εν μόνους τους σπουδαίοις είναι λέγουσι, and Aristotle Eth. Nic. 8 and 9 passim ; also Socrates in Xen. Mem. 2, 6, 20. The phrase ad vivum resecare, literally 'to cut back to the quick', is here identical in meaning with the subtilius disserere that follows, and with the subtilius quaerere of 7,

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5 sed ad communem utilitatem parum : sc. disserunt ; 'but scarcely, so

as to promote (lit. in the direction of) the general good'. 6 sit ita sane: this is a common formula aegre concedentis. So

Academ. 2, 84 ne sit sane ; ib. 2, 105 sint falsa sane. 7 eam sapientiam interpretantur: sc. esse (cf. 50, 1. 15; 64,, I. 24;

below, 1. 11); "they understand wisdom to be a thing which...'; eam is by attraction for id; for similar attractions of gender see n. on 50,

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8 nemo: cf. 7, l. 9 and 9, p. 29, 1. 33. The leading Greek Stoic phi-4

losophers hardly ever ventured to point out any actual person as having attained to wisdom. Posidonius (Diog. 7, 94) seems to have allowed that Socrates, Diogenes, and Antisthenes had made some advance towards it. Seneca allows Cato the younger to have been really sapiens.

ea quae ...etc.: ‘such things as form part of the experience and life of all; not such as are objects of imagination or aspiration'. A philosopher who propounds wild theories is often said by Cicero optare; cf. Acad. 2, 121 somnia Democriti non docentis sed optantis ; Tusc. 2, 30 optare hoc quidem est non docere; N. D. I, 19 optata magis quanı inventa; Leg. agr. I, I cogitata sapientium an optata furiosorum. Cf. n. on it, l. 18.

C. Fabricium: C. Fabricius Luscinus, consul in 282 and 278 and censor in 275 B.C., commanded against Pyrrhus, and was famed for his integrity. One of Pyrrhus' suite is said to have made an offer to Fabri. cius to poison the king; Fabricius merely sent to inform the king that there was a plot against his life.

M'. Curium : M'. Curius Dentatus, consul in 290 B.C., conquered the Samnites in the third Samnite war (cf. Cat. m. 55) and also commanded against Pyrrhus.

Ti. Coruncanium : the close friend of Dentatus (see 39, 1. 27); commanded with distinction against the Etruscans in 282 B.C.; in Cat. m. 27 he is mentioned as one of those quorum usque ad extremum spiritum est provecta prudentia.

iudicabant: esse omitted as with interpretantur in l. 7.
norinani: (standard'

sibi habeant : cf. the formal expression used by a Roman husband in divorcing his wife—tuas res tibi habeto. 13 invidiosum et obscurum : 'arrogant and unintelligible'.

concedant ut : when concedere means to give permission to do something it regularly takes ut with subjunctive, but when it means to admit a fact it is regularly followed by the accusative with infinitive. The subjoined passage shews the distinction; Rosc. Am. 54 concedo tibi ut ea praetereas quae, cum taces, nulla esse concedis. Sometimes, however, Cicero substitutes the subjunctive construction for the infinitive (but not vice versa) as in our ge and Fin. 5, 78 si Stoicis concedis ut virtus sola vitam efficiat beatam. In such passages the effect of the admission is rather looked to than the admission itself. The meaning here is ‘let them make such an admission as to bring it about that these were good men’.

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15 sapienti : a dativus commodi='for the benefit of the wise man', or

'as concerns the wise man'. Cf. 11, 1. 22.

§ 19. agamus etc. : 'let us proceed then with our gross wits, as says the proverb'. Another form of the proverb is crassa Minerva; cf. also invita Minerva. Minerva in these phrases stands for ‘wits' or 'intellect'. The expressions ut aiunt (22, 1. 30), quod aiunt, or aiunt simply (Hor. Sat. 2, 2, 64), also id quod aiunt (Terent. Phorm. 506) and ut dicitur (Lael. 97, p. 58, 1. 3, and 101, l. 30) quod dicitur (67, I. 22) are often

inserted parenthetically (like tò leyóuevov) to indicate a proverb. 17 fides...liberalitas: these words must be taken in two pairs with a pause

between the two (i.e. after integritas), in accordance with a fashion exceedingly common Cicero. Fides and integritas, loyalty and uprightness, are cognate qualities, as are aequitas and liberalitas, reasonableness and generosity. Cf. Sest. I eos qui omnia divina et humana violarint vexarint perturbarint everterint, where the words violarint vexarint go together and refer to divina, while the last two words refer to humana. Other examples will be found in Mayor's n. on Phil. 2, 89. To them add abiit excessit evasit erupit, which is probably not an instance of climax, as is commonly supposed.

cupiditas libido audacia. Spassion, caprice, temerity'. Cic. generally (e. g. Tusc. I, 20) translates émiovula by cupiditas or cupiditates. He always uses audacia in a bad sense; cf. De invent. 2, 165 audacia...

vitium est. Its use in a good sense is very rare in other authors. 18 constantia : 'strength of character'; cf. n. on 8, l. 29. 19 ut:=quales; so in 5, 1. 23 sic enim est habitus, sic=talis.

sic etiam : cf. Cat. m. 20 ut sunt, sic etiam nominantur senes.

naturam ducem : cf. n. on 17, p. 33, 1. 1. The sentiment is an echo of Stoicism. The Stoics all said that the true life was life according to nature, but they were not agreed as to the meaning of the word nature. Some took it to mean the natural constitution of man; others the.con. stitution of the universe, from which by contemplation the wise man drew his rules of life. With the words of Cicero here cf. Arch. 15 ego multos homines excellenti animo ac virtute fuisse sine doctrina et naturae ipsius habitu prope divino per se ipsos et moderatos et gravis exstitisse fateor ; etiam illud adiungo saepius ad laudem atque virtutem naturam sine doctrina quam sine natura valuisse doctrinam.

sic: the adverb here takes the place of an object to perspicere, such as tale aliquid.

mihi perspicere vidcor: a modest way of saying perspicio; cf. De Or. 1, II vere mihi hoc videor esse dicturus; so above, 15, 1. 7 and l. 16.

ita...ut: "under this condition, that...'; so 1, l. 4; Tusc. 3, 59 ea lege nos esse natos ut.... 23

societas: this is the doctrine of Aristotle in his Politics (pvoel dvopwTOS TOALTIKÒV Šov), which Cicero repeats and expands in a hundred

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passages. Cf. especially Off. 1, 50 and 51, where the different grades of social union are set forth as here; also Acad. 1, 21; Leg. 1, 23 and 61; Fin. 3, 66 and 5, 66.

ut quisque proxime accederet: sc. nobis, nos or ad nos (all three constructions being found with proxime accedere in Cicero). Cf. Off. 1, 50 optime societas hominum coniunctioque servabitur, si ut quisque erit coniunctissimus, ita in eum benignitatis plurimum conferetur; also for ut quisque Verr. I, I, 19; 4, 143; Off. 1, 63; and below, 26, I. 22 ;

29, I. 31; 46, 1. 30. 24 cives etc.: 'fellow-countrymen are preferable to foreigners'. For

the omission of sunt cf. 14, 1. 31 sin illa veriora. 25 alieni: 'strangers', whether of our own or any other country.

Observe that alienus is never used in good Latin with the sense of the English ·alien'.

natura ipsa: i.e. nature and nature only; her efforts not having been seconded by those of men. Cf. Arch. 31 naturae ipsius habitu; also l. 31

and 51, l. 17 amor ipse. 26 ea: sc. amicitia, not natura; illa would have been clearer and more usual.

hoc: = hac re; 'herein'; cf. 23, l. 4. 27' propinquitati: ‘relationship’, including the relationship of citizen

to citizen as well as that of the members of a family one to another. 28

non potest: observe that Latin idiom requires the repetition of the verb potest in the negative clause, where English idiom would omit it. (So also when the negative clause precedes, as in 90, l. 17 non capiunt, cam capiunt.] Sometimes item takes the place of the verb, as in Orat. 147 omnium magnarum artium sicut arborum altitudo nos delectat, radices stirpesque non item; but non could not stand without item; cf.

62, l. 27 ; 73, 1. 5. 29 propinquitatis: for the omitted adversative particle (sed or the like) cf. n. on 5, l. 25.

§ 20. 30 maxime: this qualifies hoc, not intellegi. 31 ex infinita etc.: starting from that undefined union of mankind, which

only nature has knit together, the institution has been so concentrated and confined within narrow limits, that all affection is a bond connecting

either two individuals or at least a small number'. 32 res: as in 17, p. 32, l. 27, and 4,

1. 6. angustum: adjective for noun, like extremum, above, 14, 1. 26, and below, p. 34, l. 6. 33 duos: so right, not duo. See Appendix.

P. 34. enim: the conditions of amicitia here given are so difficult of fulhl. ment that they account for the rarity of caritas (as above inter duos aut paucos) which is the kernel of friendship.

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