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omnium...consensio: in 15, 1. 10 it is said that the whole pith (omnis ris) of friendship lies in the consensio voluntutum studiorum sententi

In the present passage the objects towards which the voluntates, studia and sententiae are to be directed are so described as to include all things in heaven and earth. The division of all things into res divinae and res humanae belonged to everyday talk and has no reference whatever to any philosophical system, as Seyffert tries to make out. Cf. the title of Varro's greatest work, Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum. For the genitive rerum after consensio=de rebus cf. Roby $ 1395, Kennedy § 163 B, also 86, l. 19; 37, 1. 10; 34, 1. 11.-Compare with this definition of friendship the following: Aristotle, Rhet. 2, 4 έστω δη το φιλεϊν το βούλεσθαί τινι α οίεται αγαθά, εκείνου ένεκα, αλλά μη αυτού και το κατά δύναμιν πρακτικών είναι τούτων. (Cf. Eth. Nic. 2, 7, 13.) Cic. Invent. 2, 166 amicitia, voluntas erga aliquem rerum bonarum illius ipsius causa quem diligit cum eius pari voluntate; Planc. 5 vetus est lex illa iustae veraeque amicitiae ut idem amici semper velint, nec est ullum certius amicitiae vinculum quam consensus et societas consiliorum et voluntatum; Sallust, Cat. 20 idem velle atque idem nolle, ea demum firma amicitia est. Neither in Eth. Nicom. books 8 and 9, nor in Plato's Lysis, is any very exact definition of friendship attempted.

benevolentia et caritate: 'kindliness and affection'. These words are often thus joined, as in Sest. 6; Phil. 2, 107 and 112; Off. 1, 54. Cf. 32, 1. 19 benevolentiae caritatem. Observe that the words cum benevolentia et caritate qualify consensio; cf. 3, 1. 20 sermonem de amicitia;

66, l. 12 in omni re severitas; 51, l. 15; 61, l. 15. 3 haud scio an: in Cic. and the best writers this phrase is affirmative,

meaning 'probably'; in later writers negative, with the sense 'probably not'. Cic. never uses after haud scio an either quisquam or ullus, but always some negative phrase ; cf. 51, l. 23.

excepta sapientia...datum: cf. Plato, Timaeus 47 B Olloooplas yévos, ου μείζον αγαθόν ούτ' ήλθεν ούθ' ήξει ποτέ τη θνητώ γένει δωρηθέν εκ Dewv, which Cic. thus turns in his translation, at the end of the fragment of it which is preserved: quo bono nullum optabilius nullum praestantius neque datum est mortalium generi deorum concessu atque munere

Cic. frequently imitates the passage, as below, 47, p. 43, 11. 2, 3: Academica 1, 7; Tusc. 1, 64; Leg. 1, 58.

divitias alii etc.: cf. closely $ 86. 6 beluarum: so rightly written, not belluarum.

extremum: for the omission of est cf. n. on 14, 1. 31. extremum here =finis, in the sense of finis bonorum or summum bonum. The passage is aimed at Epicurus and his followers who pecudis et hominis idem bonum censent (Academ. 1, 6). Cf. 32, 1. 14.

caduca et incerta: 'fleeting and unstable'; cf. pro dom. 146 caduca semper et mobilia haec esse duxi, non virtutis sed fortunae munera.

posita in: cf. n. un 7, l. 13. 9 praeclare illi quidem: sc. faciunt. Cf. Academ. 2, 94 si habes quod

liqueat neque respondes, superbe, sc. facis (such is the mss reading, which may be right, though editors change it).

neque dabitur.

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signit et continet : 'produces and upholds'; cf. 100, 1. 10 virtus et conciliat amicitias et conservat.

nec sine virtute etc.; cf. 18, 1. 3 nisi in bonis amicitiam esse non posse. This matter is touched on by Aristotle Eth. Nic. 8, 1, 7 TbTepov év tãou γίνεται η φιλία ή ουχ οίόν τε μοχθηρούς όντας φίλους είναι και cf. 8, 2, 6 sq. esse: emphatic; trans. 'exist'.

§ 21. iam:="to proceed', as often.

consuetudine sermonis : cf. Verr. 4, 109 cotidiana dicendi consuetudine.

nec eam...metiamur: Seyffert rightly says that this clause is not intended to contrast strongly with the first part of the sentence, otherwise non would have been written for nec and eam omitted. The clause is really explanatory=non metientes. For the construction of metiri cf. n. on 97, 1. 2, and for the expression mempeîV TL TLVL in Aristot. Eth. Nic. 8,

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13 docti : cf. 17, p. 32, 1. 28 doctorum.

magnificentia : cf. Plato Symp. 210 D kalovs Noyous kal meyalot peTreîs. So magnificum in 32, 1. 15.

viros bonos : cf. 18, 1. 6. 14 Paulos etc.: the plural in the sense of 'men like P.' etc. For

Paulos, cf. § 9; for Gallus $S 9 and 10; for Philus § 14. 16 omnino nusquam reperiuntur: cf. 9, p. 29, 1. 33 ; n. on 18, 1. 13.

§ 22. 17 opportunitates : the word opportunitas is 'opportuneness ' rather than

'opportunity'. To say that friendship has opportunenesses ’ is equivalent to saying that it shews the characteristic of opportuneness' on many occasions. Cicero uses the plural of abstract nouns like this more fre

quently than any other author. 18

vix queo : Cic. always says non queo or vix queo, never nequeo, though he uses other parts of the verb require. For queo in an affirmative clause cf. 71, 1. 26.

principio: 'to begin with’.

vita vitalis : it is not known to what work of Ennius the quotation belongs. The words are an imitation of Bios Biwrós. In his own style, Cic. would have written vita potest esse ulla ; cf. 86, 1. 32

vitanı esse nullam =βίον είναι αβίωτον. 19 quae...conquiescit : which does not find peace in an interchange of

kindness with a friend'. Cf. Aristot. Eth. Nic. 9, 9, 3 äTOTOV 8ίσως και το μονώτην ποιείν τον μακάριον ουθείς γαρ έλoιτ' άν καθ' ' αυτόν τα πάντέχειν αγαθά.

quid dulcius : the omission both of enim and est gives an abrupt emphasis to the question; also 55, l. 19; 30, p. 38, 1. 3 ; 40, p. 41, 1. 30; 25, 1. 12 ; 99, 1. 33. Cf. n. on 14, 1. 31.

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quicum: cf. n. on 2, l. 17. For the sense of this passage Seyffert welf

compares Seneca de Tranquill. animi c. 7 quantum bonum est ubi , sunt praeparata pectora in quae tuto secretum omne descendat, quorum conscientiam minus quam tuam timeas, quorum sermo sollicitudinem leniat, sententia consilium expediat, hilaritas tristitiam dissipet, conspectus ipse delectet.

qui esset etc. : lit. 'what sort of enjoyment of such importance?' Quis would have meant merely 'what enjoyment?' (Cf. n. on gravis aliqui casus in 84, l. 11.) As Seyffert points out, tantus is here only a rhetorical variation for magnus, and as tantus implies quantus there is really an ellipse. For the context cf. Aristot. Eth. Nic. 9, 9 throughout, esp. 8 2 εστι γαρ η παρουσία αυτή των φίλων ηδεία και εν ταις ευτυχίαις και ατυχίαις" κουφίζονται γάρ οι λυπούμενοι συναλγούντων των

φίλων. . 2+ ceterae: cf. n. on 7, l. 9 reliqua.

quae expetuntur: 'which are objects of desire'. Cic. commonly uses expetere, expetenda to represent the Greek aipeîv, aiperd, which are technical terms common to all the later Greek philosophical schools. Anything which forms part of the summum bonum is aipetóv. Cf. 46, 1. 29 expetendas; 80, 1. 3, expetita; 31, l. 13.

opportunae etc.: ‘are suited, for the most part, each of them to a single end; riches, that you may enjoy them; influence, that you may be

honoured, etc.'. 26 valetudo:=here the bona v. of 20, 1. 5; cf. n. on 8, 1. 25. 27 amicitia: for the omission of autem or some such word (adversative

asyndeton) cf. 5, l. 25; 13, 1. 16; 49, 1. 32. 29 loco: observe the simple ablative with excluditur. Nullo loco may

however have an adverbial sense equivalent to that of nusquam. The adverb praesto in the preceding clause makes this probable, and the probability is increased by pluribus locis below, multis locis in 47, p. 43, l. 4; hoc loco in 67, l. 16.

intempestiva: 'out of season'. 30 ut aiunt: n. on 19, l. 15. Fire and water were fixed upon as the

first necessaries of life in the aqua et igni interdictio, which was equivalent to a sentence of exile. Cf. Off. 1, 52 ex quo sunt illa communia (officia); non prohibere aqua profluente; patio ab igne ignem capere

si qui velit. 32 quae tamen...prodest: a sidelong protest against the theory (8 18) that only the oopol were capable of friendship.

delectat et prodest: so Horat. A. P. 333 aut prodesse volunt aut delectare poetae.

vera et perfecta: 'pure and faultless'; the telela pilia of Aristotle (Eth. Nic. 8, 6, 2) also ή ως αληθώς φιλία (ib. 8, 5, 3) and αληθής φιλία

in Plato, Lysis 214 D; cf. vera amicitia in 23, 1. 6; 58, 1. 16. 33 pauci: cf. $ 15.

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secundas...adversas: so 17, p. 33, 1. 2; 22, p. 34, 11. 21, 22.

partiens communicansque: the two participles differ very little in meaning—no more widely than “dividing' and 'sharing' in English. In partiens the notion of mere division is more prominent, in communicans the notion of comradeship or partnership; cf. 24, l. 23 in periculis communicandis.

§ 23. 3 commoditates: very little different in sense from opportunitates in

22, l. 17. Opportunitas expresses rather the idea of exceptional appropriateness, commoditas rather the characteristic of usefulness as an ordinary fact.

cum contineat...tum praestat: the normal construction with cum ...tum is for both clauses to have the same verb or for the verbs (if different) in both clauses to be in the same mood and tense. The reason for the variation here is the desire to point out that the fact contained in the clause cum...contineat is one which has been already mentioned and disposed of. Seeing that friendship furnishes very many and important advantages...'. Continet would have been appropriate had the fact now been mentioned for the first time.

illa...praestat omnibus: I take illa as ablative (sc. commoditate), comparing 19, 1. 26 hoc praestat, and make omnibus neuter=omnibris rebus, the verbs praestat and praelucet having thus the same subject amicitia. Many editors, in order to avoid the exceptional onnibus=omnibus rebus, make illa (sc. commoditas) subject to praestat so that omnibus =o. commoditatibus, while praelucet has for its subject amicitia. The neuter omnibus used as substantive, though rare, is well attested; cf. N. D. 2, 36 quae quoniam talis est ut et praesit omnibus et eam nulla res possit impedire; ib. 2, 133 ratio est enim quae praestet omnibus ; De fato 14 non valere videtur in omnibus ; Liv. 1, 45 formatis omnibus ; 3, 23 omissis omnibus; cf. also n. on 50, 1. 7 similium.

spem praelucet: the verb praelucere is rare even in poetry and very rare in prose.

The transitive use ("holds up the light of hope') may perhaps be allowed here, though the only passages quoted for it by the editors and lexica are Auson. Idyll. 4, 95 (D. lumen), and Plaut. Casina 1, 30 (P. facem). Plin. Nat. Hist. 32, 141 has praeluceat baculum, i.e. 'sets on fire'. The only other passage I have noted is in

Amm. Marc. 18, 6, 15 P. facem. 5 cadere: cf. the phrase cadere animo. 6

verum amicum: so 54, l. 11 the word verus is to be taken in a less strict sense than in 22, p. 34, l. 32 vera amicitia.

exemplar aliquod: Seyffert well quotes the Meyáda rolkà 2, 15 ώσπερ όταν θέλωμεν αυτοί αυτών το πρόσωπον ιδείν, εις το κάτοπτρον έμβλέψαντες είδομεν, ομοίως και όταν αυτοί αυτους βουληθώμεν γνώναι, εις τον φίλον ιδόντες γνωρίσαιμεν άν έστι γαρ ώς φάμεν ο φίλος έτερος dy“. Cf. also 80, 1. 8.

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7 absentes adsunt etc.: for the intended contradiction in terms (oxymoron;

; cf. n. on 85, l. 16) cf. Mil. 97 gloriam: esse hanc unam quae efficeret ut absentes adessemus, mortui viveremus, where edd. quote the epigram of Simonides on the heroes of Thermopylae—oudē reovão. θανόντες, επεί σφ' αρετή καθύπερθε κυδαίνουσανάγει δώματος εξ Αίδεω.

egentes abundant etc.: St Paul, Corinth. 2, 6, 10 'as having nothing, and yet possessing all things'; ib. 5. 9 ‘as dying and behold,

we live'. 8 difficilius dictu: 'a harder saying'. The Latin like the English

phrase is strictly inaccurate, since the statement is not hard to make, but hard to believe. Cf. Mark 2, 9 'whether is it easier to say to the sick of the palsy...' Cic. often has incredibile dictu; cf. Liv. 3, 5, 12

difficile ad fidem est affirmare. 9

tantus eos honos: for the separation of tantus from honos cf. n. on quam id recte in 1o, 1. 8.

ex quo: the antecedent to quo is not desiderium, but the whole preceding clause; thus ex quo=ex qua re.

beata mors...vita laudabilis: note the chiasmus (inversion of the order of the words in parallel phrases) for which cf. 5, 1. 22; 47, l. 11; 65, p. 49, 1. 1; 70, 1. 12; 57, 1. 7.

laudabilis: 'worthy of praise'; because the survivors do well in remembering their friends.

rerum natura: 'the constitution of things', i.e. the universe.

benevolentiae coniunctionem: “the bond of goodwill’; benevolentia, the more diffused and weaker form of affection, is here contrasted with amicitia in l. 14, its more concentrated and intense form. Benevolentia

here is Aristotle's oubvola in Eth. Nic. 9, c. 6. 13 ne...quidem: 'no, nor'; simply a stronger nec.

id: explained by the clause quanta...sit.

minus: here (and often) scarcely different in sense from non. 14

vis amicitiae : cf. 15, 1. 10. 15 percipi: a stronger word than intellegitur just before.

quae enim domus etc.: cf. Sallust, Iug. 10, 6 concordia parvae res crescunt, discordia maximae dilabuntur; Matthew 12, 25 tão a móds

η οικία μερισθείσα καθ' εαυτής ου σταθήσεται. 16 discidiis: so rightly written, not dissidiis. Most scholars now agree

with Madvig in denying dissidium to be a Latin word.

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§ 24. 13 quidem: often used like the Greek ye or yoûv to introduce a statement confirming a previous statement.

doctum quendam: Empedocles (born about 485 B.C.). Cicero is very careful not to make Laelius betray too intimate an acquaintance with Greek literature. Cf. n. on S7, 1. 5 nescio quem.

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