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diffusion of literature, to bear away the palm of undisputed excellence; when such superior works appear, they receive from us, as may be seen, an attention proportioned to their eminence.
On subjects connected with the Established Church, we have spoken openly, but we believe reasonably and temperately; and the same disposition shall continue to advocate her rights, defend her character, and promote all due amendment of her defects,
The latter part of our Magazine has always been appropriated to the Obituary; a part that has been much esteemed by the public, and much consulted by literary persons: we can assert that the materials are collected with labour and investigation, and that they are arranged after very careful examination.
But if in any department of our Magazine occasional mistakes or defects may be found, we are confident that a candid reader will attribute them not to the negligence of the contributors, but to the very nature of the publication, which cannot, like a common book, be laid aside and revised at leisure. Our appeal on this subject, shall be in the words of the Roman Poet:
Da veniam subitis ; et dum legis ista, memento
Me dare non librum, sed Schediasma tibi.'
By SYLVANUS URBAN, GENT.
SORIER DE NORMENDIE.
We cannot afford to insert, at the ex Henry VI. the field of which is on one pense of more important matter, the reply side divided by cross bars into four quarof LANCASTRIENSIS to the strictures of ters, each of which contains a dolphin M. D. on Baines's History of Lancashire. embower, and in the centre is this shield of We have read over his letter attentively ; arms :-a bend, and on a canton a mullet ; and do not find that he is able to deny the legend + JEHAN STANLAWE ESCVIER ; inaccuracies pointed out by M.D., stating on the reverse, two shields of the arms of only that this censure is trifling, that un
France and of France and England quarfair; some passages are not fully quoted, terly, each under a crown, legend + TREand the deficiencies of others will be sup
The similarity plied in other parts of the work. The of the above coat of the bend, canton, only two points he notices of the least and mallet to others belonging to the public value,
“ Bredmed ” names of Stanlow and Stanley, shows that (Brightmet) occurs as a place of moor the connection of the name of Strangeland in the Survey of the manor of Man ways with this medal has arisen entirely chester, 16 Edw. II. (MS. Harl. 2085) from a misreading or misapprehension. and that the MSS. of Mr. D. Rasbotham R. H. begs to ask if any of the readers furnish the authority for Mr. Baines's of your Magazine can inform him whether statement that the dissenters assembled there are in existence descendants of its at Winter Hill.—We are desired by M. D. original publisher, Mr. Cave, or in whose himself to make these corrections to his possession the papers of that worthy man letter. The sentence in p. 595 about and zealous friend of literature now are. Farnworth church should be withdrawn. He will feel exceedingly obliged for any In p. 599, a. 16, for Dr. Whitaker rea:) information on this subject sent to him at Mr. Whitaker ; and in line 41, after the the office of the Gentleman's Magazine. 28th read Sept. In p. 595, b. 10, for He wishes further to inquire of those who p. 66 read p. 46; b. 16, for p. 40 read possess information concerning the worp. 46; and b. 22, for p. 54 read p. 45. thies of this city in the last
whether In p. 598, a. 16 from bottom, for p. 29 they can afford him any particulars conread p. 89.
cerning that ingenious and remarkable The Ode to Greece, and the poetry sent man Lewis Paul, the patentee of spinning by H. and M. B. S. are declined.
by rollers in 1738 and 1758, and of the We do not recollect the communication carding cylinder in 1748, in addition to of the CHURCHMAN who has fined us with that given in Mr. Edward Baines's “Hisa heavy postage.
tory of the Cotton Manufacture" lately The articles on Archery by F. O. and published. Paul appears, from the entry X. Y, in the course of the season.
of his patents, to have lived at BirmingFEDERARIUS inquires if any collector ham in 1738 and 1748, and at Kensingof Literary Prospectuses can inform him ton Gravel Pits in 1758; and he calls of a Prospectus of Rymer's Fædera. himself “ gentleman.” He was a most The first volume of that work came out ingenious and enterprising man, but, like in 1704, but an ample announcement of it the greater number of inventors, he deappears at the end of the preface of the rived little benefit from his inventions. Mantissa Codicis Juris Gentium Diplo- Any particulars of his life, where he died, matici, published by G. G. Leibnitz in and whether he left descendants or papers, 1693, which leads to the supposition that would be exceedingly acceptable, and a Prospectus was printed and circulated would help to clear up a disputed point of abroad long before any part of the Federa much interest in the history of mechaniwas published. To that author's notice cal science and the useful arts. of the intended work is added a descrir ANTIQUARIUS inquires for any notices tive title, which is prolix and very curious, relating to the pedigrees of Burton of and is said to be larger than what had Ingerthorpe, Ward of Newby, and Pigot been before made known to the world ; of Clotherholme, all in the immediate qualis autoris missu ad nos pervenit. Any neighbourhood of Ripon; they were, he new particulars respecting Rymer will be believes, all extinct or removed before the very acceptable.
first Visitation of Yorkshire was taken. J. S. is informed that the medal which W. H. inquires who was the judge or Pinkerton attributed to " Jehan Strange Serjeant-at-Law who adopted the motto, wayes, Escuier," appears from the Me “VIM TEMPERATAM” on his ring, about dallic History of England, 4to, 1802, the year 1779 or 80. Was it Thurlow, pl. III. to be the same with a silver coun Wedderburne, or Jack Lee? ter struck in Normandy in the reign of
SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE,
FRON ITS ORIGIN TO THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.
Tue origin of the science of Medicine, like the origin of almost all other sciences, is lost in the darkness of remote antiquity. As disease commenced with the gift of life, so the means of removing or alleviating it inust have been among the earliest efforts of those who felt, when they first drew vital air, the weakness and tenderness of humanity. The slow progress of their early inventions, and the limited nature of their resources and remedies, we may, without being wide of our aim, conjecture ; from what we discover among the vagrant tribes of the desert, the remote dwellers in the ocean-isles, and all the uncivilized people of the globe. The art of Medicine probably commenced with the accidental discovery of the virtues of plants; and a decoction of vegetable substances was taken internally, or applied to the surface of the body, as the nature of the disease suggested A lacerated limb from a contest with “a lion or a bear” who had attacked the fold; a kick from a Centaur who was opposed in forcibly carrying away the most beautiful damsel of the village; or a fall from the back of that venerable and primæval animal, who from time immemorial has been the patient servant and the humble friend of man ;—such wounds called for some chirurgic aid ; and after much thought, and many a bold hypothesis, and extensive inquiry, and repeated consultations, it was resolved to try the effect of binding and bandaging the wounds with vegetables of balsamic properties, and excluding the external air. Sometimes a bolder practitioner would recommend the patient to be wrapt in the hot skin of the offending animal; or to have the oxydated metal of the spear scraped over the wound, as an antidote to the effects of its destructive faug:* or when a chieftain, who went out to battle in the morning, Diis similis, came back with a headache from the effects of a hot and dusty campaign, and the weight of his sevenfold shield; and when a capacious bowl of strong dark wine, frequently filled and emptied, was found to disappoint the well-founded hopes of the suffering giant, the Briseis of the tent, with her bandmaids, was sent to herbalize on the banks of the river
* There is no mention of poisoned weapons in the Iliad ; but in the Odyssey, lib. i.
For thither also had Ulysses gone
Ilus refused, &c. From many circumstances the Odyssey appears to be a poem of later date than the Iliad. That part of the last book, subsequent to the meeting of Laertes and Ulysses, seems different in style of expression and thought from the rest, and added by one who belonged to another age.
for some fresh and cooling diaphoretic. A few trifling mistakes might be made and overlooked, and when some obstinate and clumsy leech sacrificed to his ignorance the flower of an army or a court, and
Πολλάς δ' έφθίμους ψυχάς αίδι προΐαψεν
Ηρώων, his blunder was laid on the shoulders of remorseless Pluto and the inexorable Fates : but in this manner a few simple remedies were discovered, perpetuated and improved, and the loss of eyes, fingers, and other smalí servants of that prince the Body, was submitted to with a good grace; just as our friends the Americans are contented to enjoy the beauties of their transatlantic ladies, without the unnecessary ornament of teeth. During this period we may presume that the gentlemen of the Old World were much engaged in cultivating their farms, or drilling their militia, or hunting tawny lions; and the art of Medicine consequently fell into female hands, as among the wild Indians of the present day, the squaws perform all the offices, and practise all the branches of the healing art: and certainly they seem to have attained to no despicable knowledge of the virtue of herbs ; and can brew a caldron of enchantment,* as powerful as even the fair daughter of Jove possessed.
A drug most potent to suppress or grief
His father and his mother both were dead. But passing over this first stage of the art, we are informed, on the best authority, that Egypt was the country in which Medicine was cultivated with such success as to have afforded a subject for a distinct profession. The Pharaohs were priests, as well as kings; the sacred fillet of the sacerdotal dignity was interwoven with the crown; and leech-craft probably was in the hands of the servants of Isis, who were in exclusive possession of a knowledge, which they had gained at the expense of some thousands * of premature departures to Hades. The great high-priest of On was probably head-barber-surgeon to the monarch and his imperial consort, under whom a band of well-instructed tonsores medici were duly licensed to practise in Memphis, Thebes, and the surrounding cities. Homer informs us, that Egypt, more than any other country, possessed herbs of the inost powerful virtues, and also more skilful physicians to administer them.
-For Egypt teems
For they are genuine sons of Pæon all. How much of their success was owing to magical incantation, and the early arts of empiricism, we cannot say; but from what we read in the
* In the Odyssey, book xix, the wound of Ulysses is cured by enchantment:
Around Ulysses his companions throng'd,