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height; the roof being a plain semi. It consists of a nave and chancel,. with circular vault of small sized rag-stones; north and south ailes, a short north and its east end is also semicircular. and south transept, and a low square It is divided into two unequal parts, tower at their intersection. The prin like nave and choir, by a plain semi. cipal external ancient features of this circular and very massive arch, of building, are the plain flat chancel which the soffit stones are small and buttresses terminating in a plain pararough, badly joined, and without a pet, supported by a series of blocks regular key-stone, or any appearance the semicircular apsis of the south of stucco or the opus reticulatum so transept, and its large horizontal torus frequent in true Roman temples. This at the base of its window, which is arch springs from square projecting semicircularly headed with an archiabaci on great square pillars, about volt, embellished by the nail - head 8 feet high, which are made up of moulding. The windows of the chanRoman bricks and small rag stones. cel and of the west end are semicircuA bench of large slab-stones is at larly headed, those of the chancel betached to all the walls except where it ing the most spacious. The former is interrupted by the division pillars, door - way was also semicircularly the altar, and the entrance at the centre arched; but the present entrance, and of the western end. This entrance is the eastern window, and the other a narrow, lofty, semicircular arch, windows, are innovations of the fourcommunicating with the stair above- teenth century, and the buttresses of mentioned, and was apparently the the ailes are in the various forms and original access to this subterranean situations which the upholding of the church. On the north and south sides fabric has, from time to time, made near the west end, inarched in the necessary. thickness of the walls, are the tombs, The principal internal features of rude table monuments or altars, of the church at St. Vandrille, are strongly the two first Archbishops of Rouen, tinctured with a Roman origin, consiSt. Mellon and St. Avitien ; and pro- dering that it must still be deemed a bably their bones still moulder under. Gothic structure. The columns of the neath, for these arches were piously nave are cylindrical and of classical blocked up during the period of Cal. proportions, being slenderer than those vinistic outrage, and re-opened to the of a subsequent era, although some - faithful, A.D. 1723. The altar is of antiquaries have estimated the antione rough stone, about eight feet in quity of Gothic columns in the direct length, and covered with the dust of ratio of their comparative diameters many years, as are also the figures of with their height. The bases of these the Virgin and Child, and other rude columns have the claw ornament so embellishments of this hermitage-like characteristic of their style. The cachapel. The only light admitted to pitals closely resemble the Ionic order, this crypt is through a small window except that their volutes are much at its eastern end, above the altar, smaller, and their abacuses shallower, which, although much mutilated, was but they have a well-marked neck and once semicircularly headed and straight astragal of Roman form. The columns sided. So dark, however, must have of the tower are lower than the others, been this chapel, that artificial light and support pointed arches; but all was absolutely necessary for the per- the other arches are semicircular, and formance of its services, and possibly, have their several soffits adorned with from this necessity arose, in some de- square sunk pannels, in each of which gree, the practice of employing lights are five rosettes. The columns of the in almost every ceremony of the Ro. chancel are similar to those of the man Catholic religion.

nave; but they have also, upon their Saint Vandrille is a little village chancel side or aspect, three shafts situated in a valley about a league attached, which run up higher than from Caudebec. The church is of the lonic capitals, and support the that early Saxo-Norman style which , transverse and diagonal ribs of the has been lately called, from its simila- chancel vaulting, which are embel. rity to that of many ancient Christian lished at their intersections with bosses churches in the holy city, Romanesque. of small human-heads, and lambs.


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The south transept is in similar style reducere, Medicandum, h. e, non sa to the nave and chancel ; but the north- Vet. Schol. Egentem scilicet ern transept has pointed arches spring- Helleboro." ing from slender shafts attached to the In 1711, Dr. Bentley, that "first wall, and from brackets of a Roman critic wbom a scholar would wish to form which are adorned with ara- consult in adjusting the text of Hobesques. The font is probably coeval race, came out with his memorable with the Church, and stands upon one edition; and if I were set to justify stout central column, and eight sur- the splendid character here quoted of rounding slender shafts.

him from Dr Parr, I don't know that The ruined abbey of Fontenelle is a more decisive proof could by speciclose to the parish church just de- men be given of his critical superiority scribed. It has been despoiled long than in his note on this very passage. since for the erection of a palace of His masterly talent is devoted to the the Archbishops of Rouen, which was defence against Torrentius' and the partially destroyed at the Revolution, complete illustration of the reading and is now a cotton manufactory. medicandum. The demonstration is to -Much of its splendour yet remains, my mind as solid as it is luminous. and its history has been published by First of all then, let. J. M. be adM. Langlois, of Rouen, whose talents vised to bestow another perusal on as a draughtsman are equal to his that powerful note, and with increased learning and discrimination as an an- attention too; before he again speaks tiquary.

PLANTAGENET. of the passage in the reading approved

by Cruquius, Baxter, Bentley, Cun.

ingham, and Gesner, as most corQUÆSTIONES VENUSINÆ,

rupt," and one " that has defied the No. V.

learning and ingenuity of all the comIN the Review department of the mentators.” Gentleman's Magazine for June, pp. Secondly, as an improvement on the 637-8, the late edition of Professor old lection, mendosum et mendacem, had - Anthon's Horace from Doering's text we nothing else from any quarter pro

printed in this country, has afforded posed, J. M. might take the compli- to the Reviewer, J. M., opportunity to ment due to his ingenuity for a very start his own idea for the restoration plausible emendation in ventosum et of what he terms a corrupt passage in mendacem; that is, so far as ventosum Horace; and he calls on the author might contribute to abate the cacozelon of Horatius Restitutus to pronounce by Baxter justly condemned. his judgment on the passage. so re- But thirdly, J. M. must not forget, stored.

that he proceeds per saltum over some The old reading stood thus, 1 E. . sixty years of interval or more, if • xi, 39, 40.

from the meaning of a term like venPalsus bonor juvat, et mendax infamia

tosus in Seneca he would pass back at terret,

once, and assume the similar accepQuem nisi mendosum et mendacem ?

tation for it when proposed ex ingenio

in Horace. As early as in the year 1578, Cruquius,

That poet has bimself used the word on the authority of MSS. scrupled not

ventosus four several times : let us see to substitute medicandum in the text instead of mendacem, supplying at the

In its literal sense, 4 C. iv. 45-6, same time a clear and sufficient expo

mare ventosum, wind-tost, liable with sition of the advantage of sense afforded by the new reading over the old.

every wind to change its state. In 1701, our own Baxter was the

To the metaphorical sense, 1 E. xix. first editor who followed Cruquius in

37, ventose plebis, fickle and change

able as if it shifted with every wind, adopting medicandum. The following is a very good sample of his better Tully may seem to have preluded in

the well known passage Pro Murenâ, style of criticism. '« Mendosum et Mendacem cacozelon

(Quod enim fretum.. tot motus, est Horatio indignum: quare non du

tantas, tam varias habere putatis agibitavimus cum Cruquii MSS. et veteri

tationes fluctuum, quantas perturbainterprete medicandum in suam sedem * C the first letter of Carmina.


in what usage.

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tiones et quantos restos habet ratio kowever, many who regard the Porcomitiorum?) as well as by the phrase traits on Medals as the least instruepopularis aura, which, like many other tive, and, disdaining the effigy of the phrases belonging to civil life, Horace Emperor, turn to the reverse, which had in common with Cicero.

records his victories, bis vanity, or bis Again, we find the epithet in a sic munificence. milar application, 2 E. i. 177, ventoso Upon these designs we have many Gloria curru, where the fickleness of learned commentaries, whilst the ob such Glory is by an easy metonymy verbes have been frequently neglected attributed to her car.

by numismatic writers, although colBut Horace, in the notion of fickke, lections of portraits have been highly humorous, capricious, has also applied valued in all civilized countries, even the term personally to himself. 1 E. by those who were aot attached to viii. 12, Romæ Tibur amem, ventosus, antiquarian studies. Tibure Romam.

Some early authors give indifferent Now I assert that none of these ac. representations of the heads on the ceptations will suit that meaning of ven- coins of those Emperors of whom they tosus, combined with mendax in Seneca, furnish biographical notices, but scarcefor which J. M. ex emendatione would ly ever make any remarks on the feainto the text of Horace introduce it; tures exhibited. It will, however," be inasmuch as the use of ventosus so com

found that the countenance of the de. bined is to mark the specific character spot, as delineated on his medals, ge.. of the braggard alone, comprehending nerally accords with the descriptions no other whatsoever. Ventosus as a furnished by the ancient historians. personal attribute in the sense of loud, Visconti, in his “ Iconographie Ro. noisy, boastful, is elsewhere unknown maine," (a work which, unfortunately to Horace; and in the passage before for the antiquary, he did not live to us, it is a general, not a specific charac- complete,) has devoted some chapters ter, that is demanded by the context. to the portraits found on consular

Let the reader therefore judge, from coins; but his attributions appear to the sentence of Seneca here more me to be sometimes fanciful ; for infully quoted, how little relevant the stance, he tells us that the head on quotation of J. M. can be considered the remarkable coins of the Gens Mens to any purpose of illustrating Horace. mia, recording the celebration of the

" Fugere itaque debebit [iracundus] first Cerialia, is that of Romulus ; but omnes, quos irritaturos iracundiam there does not appear to exist any sciet. Qui sunt, inquis, isti? Multi sufficient authority for such an hypoex variis causis idem facturi; offendet thesis. The same writer attributes to te superbus contemptu, dives contu. the founder of Rome the head on a meliâ, petulans injuriâ, lividus malig- coin or rather medalet, of probably nitate, pugnax contentione, ventosus the time of the Antonines. It bears et mendax vanitate. Non seres a sus. & bearded head crowned with waterpicioso timeri, a pertinace vinci, a de- weeds, and is doubtless intended for that licato fastidiri,” '&c. &c. Senecæ de of a river god-perhaps for the Tiber. Ira, 1. iii. c. viii. ex ed. J. Fr. Gro. On the coins of Roman families, we novii

. Elzevir, 1649, V. i. pp. 65, 66. have, however, -several portraits of up16th June.

H. R.

doubted authenticity, although some

of them are so rude as to leave a Mr. URBAN,

June 12.

suspicion as to their being very IT has been observed by a favourite

accurate likenesses. of these the English author,* that the first and head of Tatius Sabinus and the Conmost obvious use of Ancient Medals, issul Postumius may be cited 48 es. the showing us the Portraits of indie amples; but the heads of Ancus and viduals who are conspicuous in his- of Numa may be considered accurato tory; and that the principal charm in portraits of the Roman monarchs. numismatic studies, consists in the The Denarii of Pompey bear a por contemplation of the features of those trait which agrees with the descrip. who are celebrated for their virtues or

tion of Plutarch; though on some of notorious for their vices. There are,

them the features are very clumsily,

and indeed grotesquely executed; buto's * Addison.

these may have been the performance

of üriskilful tronegers in the Spanish sable vanity. On the denarii he is côlonies. On those of better fabric always represented without beard, and the portrait is good, the hair rises on with a cast of countenance more reEhe forehead as described by the hiss sétabling that of an ideal portrait than torian, who says it curled naturally, of a living personage. and there is in the countenance an ex. We find what may be considered pression which accords with our re: authentic portraits on the well-execeived, notions of this great man. cuted coins of Tiberius. Suetonius

of the portrait of Lepidus, which is says, that the hair of this tyrant grew found on his denarii, little can be said, down his neck. Capillo pone occi. ercept that it is badly executed, but still pitium submissiore," and on his highly characteristic, being very inex. coins this is particularly observable: pressive and unintelligent. His treat: indeed, the historian speaks of it as a taent by Cæsar's successor, and his peculiai ity in the Cesar family. tamely submitting to such treatment; Many coins of Caligula bear very etcites our surprise, after reading that noble portraits, utterly at variance He formed one of the Triumvirate with the account of Suetonius, who with Augustus and Antony; but, per. says that his countenance was unprea Haps, the subtle policy of the formet possessing, and that he endeavoured discovered the advantage of having to render it. frightful. Here flattery iá his interest one who was so readily was again upon the alert; but nume moulded to his will.

rous coins of this Emperor in middle The account which Suetonias gives brass bear a portrait of a very different of Julius Cæsar is verified by his me description: the nose is turned up. dals, which represent him without and there is an expression in the feas beard, bald, with an arched neck, and tures at once forbidding and malig. with a wreath of laurel round his nant. head; a portrait which it would be There is little variation in the heads impossible to confound with any on the coins of Claudius. The conother. The personal beauty of Cæsar templation of the portrait of this Em has been extolled by the ancient his. peror by the physiognomist or phretorians. Among others, Vellius Panologist, would throw either into rap. terculus describes him as “ forma om: tures. The expression of the face is nium civium excellentissimus ;” but vacant and unintellectual; and the there is nothing in the portraits of the head would be said by phrenologists Dictator which have come down to us, to want energy. Two busts of Claudius to warrant such extravagant praises. in the Musée Royal at Paris are re

The next portrait is that of Augus. markable for the same want of intellectus, the boyish countenance of Octa. tual expression. vius being destitute of expression, and Many of the coins of Nero, struck unworthy of notice as a likeness. The when he was Cæsar, have a youthful large brass coins of this Emperor, head, in which may be traced a strong with the head of Julius Cæsar on the likeness to his predecessor. It would reverse, bear a portrait answering in be difficult to ascertain if this was in every respect to the description of consequence of the prince's then perSuetonius, who tells us that Augustus Bonal resemblance to Claudius, or was very careless with his hair, fre, whether the artists employed in the quently permitting several persons to Roman mint were desirous of paying cut it at the same time, while he read him a compliment by giving him the or wrote; and sometimes clipped, at features of the Emperot. Small brass others, shaved his beard. The por coins of Nero, struck in some of the trait on the coin in question has rag:

Greek cities, bear very well executed ged hair, and an antrimmed beard. portraits of him when Cæsar; and in But the heads on his denarii differ these may be traced the same resemmaterially from those just described. blance to Claudias. It is, however, We tearn from the same author, that on the coins of Nero struck during his Augustus piqued himself upon his reign, that we find a portrait answerfancied likeness to Apollo; and it ing to the description of that given by would appear from these coins, that Suetonius. This author says that Aattery took advantage of this abomi. Noro at one time followed the effemi


nate fashion of having his hair cut in comely. He says the same of Titus, rings—“Comam semper in gradus for whom, however, he describes as somematum.” This style of hair-dressing what short of stature and inclined to is, however, not observable on his corpulency, while Domitian, on the Latin coins ; but on those of colonial contrary, was tall and stately. This fabric struck at Corinth before his discrepancy in the portraits of Domiaccession to the empire, we have a tian may be attributed to the desire portrait with the hair cut in that of the artists of the period to represent

him as like as possible to his brother, The countenance of Galba is mi- a prince whose virtues had endeared nutely described by the biographer of him to the people. This was a descripthe Cæsars, who observes that his tion of Aattery very frequently pracforehead was bald and that his nose tised in the Roman mint; but Domiwas hooked, traits most distinctly tian, we are told, was exceedingly marked in the portraits on his money. yain of his personal appearance; and A bust of this Emperor, preserved in it is probable that this depraved Emthe Musée Royal, may be recognized by peror preferred stamping on his coins its resemblance to that impressed on a portrait of more graceful appearance his coins.

than that which his subjects had perSuetonius remarks, that the counte. haps learned to regard with veneranance and person of Otho did not in- tion, on account of its resemblance to dicate the resolution with which he one whose amiable qualities appeared performed in the last scene of his to advantage, in an age when the struggle for the empire. : He was a rapine, sensuality, and cruelty of the man of effeminate habits and appear- Roman Emperors had, from their freance, says the historian; beardless, quency, ceased to excite the disgust and bald; the first he encouraged in and horror of their subjects. his youth, the latter he concealed by Should the foregoing brief remarks wearing a peruke.

The portraits on on the imagines of " the Twelve Cæhis Latin coins agree with this de- sars,” prove at all interesting to your scription, and are of a totally different numerous readers, I shall, at a future character to those of the other Cæ- opportunity, proceed to a review of

The peruke, with which he is the portraits on the coins of their always represented, appears to have been formed in circles, a mark of effe. Yours, &c. J. Y. AKERMAN. nancy and dandyism in those days.

Vitellius follows; and it would be difficult to find a bust so characteristic as that which his coins bear. The huge face, small head, short neck, and bloated features, are expressive of the

Mr. Urban, sensuality and cruelty which marked THE designation of this once splenthe brief reign of the imperial glutton. did appendage of royalty, has recently : Few persons can be unacquainted undergone a change, on the ground of

there being something derogatory in with the strongly marked counte

their former appellation. 'nance of Vespasian, whose features were well calculated for representation

I will, with your permission, give in profile. The coarse joke of a jester a slight sketch of the formation and on his peculiarity of visage is preserved original constitution of this corps, by by Suetonius, but will not bear repe- have been known as the “ Pen

which it will appear that its members tition here. His coins testify the ge

sioners,” or Gentlemen Pensioners," neral accuracy of the historian. The portraits on the coins of Titus,

ever since the reign of King Henry and on those of Domitian, when he the Eighth, and that their title was

never considered derogatory, although succeeded to the empire, resemble that of their father; but it is somewhat remarkable, that later coins of Domi.

* " An Historical Account of the Hon. tian have a bust of much nobler cha

Band of Gentlemen Pensioners," forms racter, with a long and graceful neck. the Second Part of Curialia, by Samuel Suetonius says that his person was Pegge, Esq. 4to. 1784.





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