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the band long consisted of members spere to haue three greate horses, to of the first families in England. bee attendaunt on his persone, of the

This band, known at first by the which bande the Erle of Essex was appellation of The King's Spears,Lieuetenant, and Sir John Pechie owes its origin to the magnificent Capitain; who endured but awhile, taste of King Henry the Eighth, who, the apparell and charges were in making this addition to the splen- greate; for there were none of theam dour of his Court, seems to have taken but thei and their horses were apthe idea from the institution of the parelled and trapped in clothe of Yeomen of the Guard, by his father, golde, silver, and goldesmithes worke, although the motives of the two mo- and their servaunts richely appareled narchs differed widely.*

also.The characteristic magnificence of Thus it appears the enormous extheir founder was conspicuous in pensé attending this office, (for which their organization. They consisted at I do not find that they received any first of fifty noblemen and gentlemen, remuneration,) caused the dissolution called the “ King's Spears ;” each of of the band, as originally constituted. whom was attended by a demilauncer, They were soon remodelled, however, (who was a gentleman,) an archer, and though still consisting of nobles and a custrel, or horse-boy; they had, and knights of the leading families of besides, three led destriers, or war- the kingdom, they received a pension horses. The following account of towards defraying the necessary extheir institution and appointments is penses. I am unable to affix the extaken from Hall's Chronicle, vol. ii. act date to this change, but in a confol. 6.

temporary MS. account of the coro“ Also this yere, (viz. 1509, 1 nation of Edw. VI. I find frequent Hen. VIII.] the kyng ordeined fiftie mention of the Pensioners” in the gentlemenne to bee speres, euery of processions and other ceremonies, them to haue an archer, a demi- without any remark or explanation, launce, and a custrell; and euery which would argue that the name and

office were not very recent. “ These thynges thus passed,” [viz.

Uvder Queen Mary there are frethe appointment of a Privy Council, and other arrangements of affairs of state,

by quent notices of this body collectively,

but I have not met with any partiHenry VII. in the 1st year of his reign.]

cular account of them. " Albeyt, that apparauntly all thynges semed to be reduced to a good poynte,

Under Queen Elizabeth they were and set in a sure steye: Kynge Henry in high estimation, and consisted enbeyng made wyse and expert with trou- tirely of nobility and gentry of the bles and myschiefes before past, remem- best families. Indeed, serving the bred that yt was wisdome to feare & Queen as a Pensioner, was an object prouide for the crafty wyles and lurkyng of ambition to the young men of the trappes of his secret enemyes, remem

highest distinction. Sir John Holbryng all me' for the moost parte em

les, of Houghton, co. Notts. Knt. brued & exercysed in plantyng of diui

afterwards Earl of Clare, used to say, sion and sowynge dissencion, can not

that while he was a Pensioner of lightely leaue their pestiferous appetite & sedicious occupacion. Wherefore, for

Queen Elizabeth,“ he did not know a the saueguard and preseruation of his

worse man than himself in the whole owne bodye, he co'stituted & ordeyned band,” and he was then in possession a certayn numbre as well of good archers of £4,000 per annum. as of diuerse other persons beinge hardy, Under King James I. and his son stronge, and of agilitie, to geue dailye Charles I. the Gentlemen Pensioners attendaunce on his person, whom he do not seem to have numbered so named Yomen of his Garde, whiche pre

many men of high rank in their band, sident men thought that he learned of

as under the virgin Queen, who is the Frenche king when he was in Frau'ce:

well known to have taken the greatest for men remembre not any Kyng of England before that tyme whiche vsed pains to fill all, even the subordinate such a furnyture of daily souldyours.”

places in her household, from the Hall's Chron. 1542. vol. 2. fo. iii. 1

Aower of the gentry. Hen. VII.

They still, however, continued in Gent. Mag. Vol. IIJ.

was not

express it, «


high repute, and that they were jea- always heretofore taken and held the said lous of the honour of their station, as George Baker to be their kinsman, and belonging to pure gentry, will appear a younger branch of their house ; which from the subjoined award of the Earl family of the Bakers, and their coat of Marshall in 1632.

armes, by the testimony of the officers By this it appears that the band then present, are found entred in severall

books of visitations and funeralls, retook exceptions to the appointment of maining in the Office of Armes, whereby Master George Baker, on the ground it appeareth that they are ancient Genthat he was no gentleman. It need tlemen of Descent and Coat Armour. In hardly be explained that this charge consideration of which premisses, I have did not then imply the censure un- thought fit to certify that the said George derstood by such an expression at the Baker hath sufficiently proved himself to present day. It had no reference to be a gentleman; and that of right, he the personal qualifications of the in- ought of all men to be so reputed and dividual, but merely implied that he

esteemed. a gentleman of blood and (Signed) “ARUNDELL & SURREY." coat armour ; or, as the French he

6. Dated at Arundel House, ralds

un ancien gentel- the Eighth day of June, 1632. homme," or gentleman of ancient descent. It is quite evident that Master

Appended to this award, is the pe. George Baker was (in the phrase of digree by which George Baker proved the present day) "moving in good so

his descent from the common ciety,” for I find that he was at this

cestor. time married to Jane, daughter of Sir

Since the Revolution, this band has Robert Hutton, Knt. one of the Jus. been neglected, and has not been entices of the Common Pleas, which, in tirely composed of gentlemen (heraldi. times when fashion had not sup- cally so called), planted rank, would have been con

The office ofGentleman Pensioner,sidered a rather high connection. It

or “ Gentleman at Arms," is, I am inwill be seen that the result of this formed, worth £100 per annum, and solemn investigation was favourable to is usually purchased for £1,000. Mr. Baker, and that be established his

Latterly, the designation of Pengentry.

sioners having proved displeasing to

the aristocratic ears of the honourable Lansdowne MSS. 873. fo. 69.

band, they (more fastidious than their “ Whereas exceptions hath lately been

noble predecessors) made interest to taken by some of his Majesty's Gentle

obtain a change of title, and now, by men Pensioners, that Mr. George Baker,

his Majesty's gracious permission, newly admitted of that Band, was no gen: they have become “ The Honourable tleman, and therefore unfit to serve his Band of his Majesty's Gentlemen at Majesty in that place of that nearness,

Arms." being of that eminence and that credit,

Yours, &c. H. N.C. upon his Majesty's speciall co'mand given in that behalf, I have, calling unto me, as assistants, the Right Honourable the


June 12. Lord Chamberlaine of bis Majesty's In the course of a correspondence Household, and other Lords, (and cer- which took place in your Magazine tain Officers of Armes being likewise between certain anonymous and very present,) convented the said George virulent opponents of mine, and myself, Baker before me, who for justification touching the state of Saxon philology in of his gentry, produced several certi. England, a good deal of stress was laid ficates, under the hands and seals of Thomas Baker, of Battle ; Thomas Ba

upon the question of accents. I now ker, of Mayfield, in the county of Sus

redeem the pledge given by me, to sex ; and John Baker, of Groom-bridge, explain the system upon which I act, in the county of Kent, whereby the said

in common with the profoundest phiparties do testify and acknowlege that lologists in Europe. I do this, not the said George Baker is lineally di

because I have any hope of convincing scended from Richard Baker, younger the persons who have done me the hoson of Thomas, common auncestor of nour to select me as the mark for their their family; and that they do and have abuse, or because I think that it can

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ever signify whether they are con- points, at all), is the one to which I vinced or not, but for the purpose of shall confine myself. Generally speakgiving information to those who de- ing, the older á MS, is, the fewer of sire and deserve it. The facts of the these marks are to be found in it: case are few and simple. It is quite they are then principally used as certain that in all Saxen, Norse, and distinction between words which, German MSS., some marks are placed were it not for the difference in the over the vowels for some purpose or length of their vowels, would be other: Some MSS. have more, some spelled alike. Take, for example, a fewer of these marks; and the MSS. few such words ; ac, sed, ác, quercus ; even of one period are not always ful, plenus, fal, sordidus ; is, est, ís, consistent in their use of them. În glacies ; man, homo, mán, nefas ; .god, what I am about to write 1 shall con- deus, gód, bonus ; ne, non, né, nec ; fine myself to the Saxon MSS., and to hof, atrium, hóf, extuli ; heoru, ensis, a few remarks upon the Norse in con- heóru (nom. fem.) mitis ; wir, contra, nexion with the Saxon. My reason for wir, liga ; galan, canere, galan (acc. omitting the German MSS. here, is def.) lascivum, &c. &c. &c. that they have a double system, one In all these cases the marks in the part of which appears to have to do

MSS. correspond accurately to the with quantity, the other with tone.

relations borne by these vowels to one Taking all Saxon MSS. without dis- another in all the Teutonic languages ; tinction of time and period, the accen- and these relations I shall take leave tuation seems to denote one of three

to look at a little more closely by things :

and by, because one of your bun1o. That the accented vowel is long, gling men without a name has veni. e. e=e, but é=n, o=0, and ó=w.

tured to fall foul of James Grimm for 2°, and very rarely, that the vowel establishing and denoting them. is emphatically marked out for the

There is some little use, Mr. Urban, purpose of particular distinction; and

in maintaining these distinctions; althis is equivalent to italics with us; though it is no doubt a bitter annoythus the Cott. MSS. of Ælfric's gram

ance to your idle and ignorant friends, mar speaks of a word which ends with

to be compelled either to give up the a short e, þæt ge-endia8 on sceortne é. point as hopeless for Saxon, or else to

3o. Some words are accented for study the Teutonic tongues, en masse : the same purpose of peculiar dis- but we shall still feel obliged to require tinction, as under similar circum- this of them, if it be only for the sake of stances we use either a capital initial forcing them to spare us the twaddle or capitals: as in speaking of the which they sometimes favour us with, Almighty or the Saviour by the third from their ignorance of these distincpersonal pronoun, where we should tions :--for example, it has been gravely print He, or HE, the Saxon some- asserted, that the Saxons were times wrote Hé; but it is quite clear deeply impressed with the goodness of that in these cases it is the word and God, and the wickedness of man's not the vowel that is accented.

nature, in spite of the Teutonic God, The first case, which indeed is the and probable Demiurgus, Mannus) as only case concerning which any dis- to have but one word for God and pute has arisen (for the anonymous good, and one for man and evil. This railers, who talk so much of the au

is pretty and plausible, and has indeed thority of MSS., were never aware of but one fault, viz., the not having a the practice of MSS. in the other two word of truth in it. Mark !

Old High Dutch. 0. Saxon.
Guth. Kot.
God. God. God.

God. Deus. Gods. Guot. Gód. Gódr. Gód. Good. Bonus. Máins. Mein. Mện. Mein. Mán.

Noxia. Manna. Man. Man. Madr. Man. Man, Homo.

So much for the theosophic and trouble of studying till they can set psychological views of the Saxons, re- themselves right, may stick to the specting God and man, and good and apparent coincidence between the Saxevil. Those who do not like the on forms, and reject not only the

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distinction of accent, but that on vestigators of languages suppose that
which the distinction rests, viz., the Dr. Blomfield would have printed
comparison of the cognate tongues. the first line of the Prometheus
So far what the earlier MSS. intend-
ed : but did they always stick to this ?

Χθωνως μην εις τελουρων εκoμην πηδων, , I answer, that they very seldom took even if he had found it so written in the trouble to do any such thing : they every MS.? I rather think that the very seldom thought it worth while to learned prelate would have thought make distinctions for the eye, which it necessary to correct the inaccurate were made by the voice in speaking, Greek of his authorities, by what he and which the context would als knew was and must be right. However, ways ascertain. But thus much the in order to show the result of adhering MSS. did; whenever they accented, to MSS. in this case, I shall take the they accented the long vowels; and liberty of printing a few lines carefully what those long vowels were I will accented upon such authority, and to enumerate below. The second and that authority being real, 1 pledge somewhat later class of MSS. some- myself. (Alfr. Boeth. Rawl. p. 2). times, and most capriciously in gene

Đá láóồ bé íc wréccá géó lústberral, extended these accentuations to lícé sóng, íc scéal nú hếófiéndé sín. certain vowels, not naturally long, but gan, and míd swi(dé) úngérádúm rendered so by position: this I attri- wordúm géséttán, þéáh íc géó hwilóm bute entirely to Danish influence, cer- gécóplice fúndé, ác ic nú wépénde tain vowels becoming long in Norse and gicsiéndé óf gérádrá wordá mísbefore certain consonants, although fó, mé áblendán þás úngétréówan naturally short, and remaining short in wórúldsæ'lbá, and mé þá fórlétán all the Tuetonic tongues but the swá blíndné ón bís dímné hól. Đá Norse. It is here that I think Rask béréáfódón æ'lcéré lústbæ'rnéssé bá errs; he followed very often his Norse Pá ic hím æ'fré bétst trúwódé fá analogies, and they misled him. It is wéndón hí mé héórá bæ'c tó, and me here that I think Thorpe errs, when míd éálléi frómgéwítán. Tó hwón he builds upon the class of MSS. I scéóldán lá míné friend séggán þæ't íc describe as supporting Rask's views. gesæ'líg món we'ré, hú mæ'g sé béón I reject utterly the accentuation of gés&lig séde ón Xám gésæ’lþúm such words as ún, word, &c. They Hurhwúníán né mót? are Norse accentuations, but not Sax- In these 98 words there are 181 accen

The last class of MSS. are nearly tuations, all authorised by MSS. and all subsequent to the Conquest, and their practice; and of these 181 there in addition to all the accumulated er- are just 38 right, and 143 wrong! As it rors of other MSS., whether these is abundantly obvious that it is nonbe errors of ignorance, or the still sense to accent every vowel, I take more frequent errors of carelessness, the liberty of requesting these supthey accent almost every i, especially porters of authority, "authority which where it is possible to confound it with is but air condensed,” to inform me the stroke of a u, an m or n; and how they will set about distinguishing some, indeed, go so far as to accent the right from the wrong. The plan nearly, every vowel indiscriminately. adopted by us is suficiently simple : But there is yet a word to be said careful comparison of the various Teurespecting Saxon MSS. : those who tonic dialects has established a law of are very anxious to save themselves relation between their vowels, and we the trouble of learning how the vow- accent according to that law. The els should be accented, make a great Gothic language, which contains the parade respecting the authority of the oldest Teutonic documents that we at MSS. : those who are familiar with present possess, has twelve vowel Saxon MSS. are equally well aware, sounds, three of which, viz. A, I, U, that these literateurs à la violette are are short, and seven long, viz. A'l, not familiar with Saxon MSS. or EI, E', IU, A'u, o and u'? when the with any MSS. whatever ; nay, even short vowels I and u stand before or that they do not know what is the R, they become changed into al' and case with every editor of a Greek or AU'. Now comparing these vowels Latin classic. Do these profound in. with those of the Saxon and German,


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O. H.D.

0. Sax.



a, e

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we find, that in old Saxon and Ger- é. The Gothic U' remains as ú; but man, A mostly remains in the same in A. S. if followed by i or ë, it is words as took it in Gothic, but that changed into y'. I will now arrange in A. S. it is under different circum- these vowels tabularly, in order to stances replaced by three different show how we determine whether a vowels : before h, l, and r, it becomes word should have an accent or not: ea, thus Goth. gards, alls, mahts, A. S. geard, eall, meaht. When followed in another syllable by i, the Gothic a æ ái


é becomes A.S. e, thus Goth. katils, A. S. cetel, and this is sometimes the case in æ é


á O.H.D. and O. Sax. When followed by sc, st, sp, or by a single final conso- ë i, ai i, ë

i, ë nant (except m, n, 1, h, and r) or by


6 any single consonant and the inflec

eá án tions, es, e, the Goth. A becomes e

au, ou, ó 6

i, aí in A. S. Before m and s it sometimes

i, ë

i, ë

eó iu iu, ie, io is replaced by a, sometimes by o.

ió, ie i i, aí i, e

i, te The Gothic i sometimes remains in

í ei


í the other tongues unchanged, some

u, aú times becomes dulled into ë, and in A.S.


6 before h and r becomes changed into

u, aú eo ; thus Goth, itan. O. H. D. ezzan ú ú

ú 0. Sax. and A. S. etan, edere: Goth. y haírus (for hirus) ensis. 0. H. D. hëru, y

ú, ió, &c. A. Sax.hëoru. O. Nor. hiörr (=hiarru.) In order to ascertain the length of the In A. S. this vowel is sometimes vowel in an A. S, word it is therefore wrongly replaced by y. The Gothic necessary to ascertain what vowel coru remains as u in the other languages, responds to it in the other principal or is dulled into o, and especially in Teutonic tongues, and by this process those cases in which, from standing alone can we correct the MSS. thembefore h and r, it became aú; thus selves. In connection with this meGoth.waúrd, O.H.D.waort, A.S.word. thod, we may use the etymological But if followed by i or its equivalent ë, means afforded us by the verbal u in A. S. becomes y,=N.H.D. ü or u. scheme, or the system of relation in Thus Goth. Runigenus. O.H.D.chunni. which the vowels stand to one anA.S. cynë, and O.H.D. chuninc. A. S. other, in the present, præt. sing., præt. cyning, rex. The Goth. A'ı is repre- pl. and past participle, of those twelve sented in O.H.D. M.H.D. and N.H.D. conjugations which it has pleased the and in O. Nor. by ei, in 0. Sax. by é, same profound scholars, who prefer and in A. S. by á : but in A. S. this á, idleness to inquiry, to nickname irreif followed by i orë, becomes ae'. The gular, but which are the foundationGothic ei is represented by î in all the stones of all Teutonic etymology. languages quoted, and only in the I have but one word to add to what N. H. Ď. and N. E. does ei return in I have said : in spite of the ingenuity sound, though notin form, in both; thus made use of to persuade myself and - Goth. weins, O.H.D. O. Sax. A. S.wín, my friends that the ungentlemanlike N.H.D. wein, N. E. wine. The Gothic productions to which I have alluded, E' becomes in A. S. æ, in O. H. D. á; proceeded from the University of Oxthe Goth. iu remains in all the older ford, I have come, perhaps rather languages but the A. S., where it be- late, to a different conclusion. That comes eó,and which is sometimes re- my opinions as a scholar undergo placed by y'. The Goth. au, which thereby any change, is out of the in 0. H. D. and O. Sax. generally re- question : but I fairly say, that if, in mains as ou or ó, becomes ea in A. S. the expression of those opinions, I as Ráuds, A. S. Read, rubes. The have used words which have given Gothic ó remains as ó in O. Sax. and pain to any one, I most sincerely re0. Nor. In O.H.D. it becomes uo, and gret it. I claim as much excuse as in A. S. it remains as ó, except when may be granted to a scholar, indignant followed by i orë, and then it becomes at the attempt to injure a favourite

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