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ELEMENTS OF VOCAL MUSIC. Note. It is repeated once for all, that in every exercise the teacher should himself first |

QUESTIONS. give the example, the pupils beating the time, and afterwards require the pupils to imitate, or do the same thing.

By what characters do we represent the length of soundsi $ 24. A sound that continues as long as two quarters is called a How many kinds of notes are there in common use? Ans. Five. balf gound. Exercise.

What kind of a note is this o? (writing the note on the board.) The note representing a half sound is made thus


and is called a What kind of a note is this pr this p; this ? this ? this half note. (Minim.)

this 2? (64) § 25. A sound that continues as long as three quarters is called three-quarters. Exercise. The note representing this sound is a dotted half, thus:

The teacher will question, also, as to the comparative length of notes. Note. Dotting a note adds one half to its length.

When three notes are sung to one part of the measure, what are they § 26. Beat, and sing to each part of the measure, or to each beat, || called? How marked? two sounds. Exercise. We now sing eighths ; the note representing an eighth sound is made


e 요
and is called an eighth note. (Quaver.)


$ 31. There are different varieties of Double, Triple, Quadruple $ 27. Beat, and sing to each part of the measure, four sounds. and Sextuple time, obtained by the use of different notes on each part of Exercise. We now sing Sixteenths; the note representing a sixteenth is the measure. Each variety of time is designated by figures, expressive made thus

and is called a Sixteenth. (Semiquaver.)

of the contents of a measure, placed at the beginning of a piece of music.

§ 32. If the parts of quadruple measure are expressed by quarters, $ 29. The teacher may now exhibit all the notes at one view, showing the measure is called Four-Four measure, and is thus marked : their relative length, thus:

pp P

Note. The characters or are often used to denote quadruple and double measure. It is, however, recommended to discard the use of them, and substitute numerals in all cases.

§ 33. If thė parts of quadruple measure are expressed by halves, the measure is called FOUR-Two measure, and is thus marked :

3 p. PPP § 34. In the same manner let the teacher illustrate 'all the varieties

of measure in common use, as in the following examples : § 29. Thirtyseconds (Demisemiquavers) may also be exhibited,

Double Measure. but it is not necessary to exercise on them.

Triple Measure. Sextuple Measure. $30. Sometimes three notes are sung to one part of a measure, or in the usual time of two notes of the same kind. When this is done the

When this is done the ppippi PPIPP Pll figure 3 is placed over or under them thus,

and they are called triplets. Exercise on Triplets.

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ELEMENTS OF VOCAL MUSIC. $ 35. Rhythmical lessons may now, or at an earlier period, at the

CHAPTER V. discretion of the teacher, be written upon the board and sung, first by the teacher, and afterwards by the scholars. Both teacher and scholars should always beat the time, and also describe the motions, when not engaged in lof a measure, or a whole measure, or any number of measures in silence.

$ 37. We are often required in music to count or beat certain parts singing; but the scholars should never sing with the teacher, nor the teacher | This is called resting, and the sign for it is called a REST. with the scholars. When the teacher sings, the pupils should listen, (al

$38. Each note has its corresponding rest, which is of equal length ways beating,) and when the pupils sing, the teacher should listen.

with the note it represents.
§ 39. Example. Whole rest.

- Half rest. Quarter rest.

Eighth rest.

Sixteenth rest.

។ poploll

។ polpoploll

The teacher exhibits the rests upon the board.

$ 40. Rhythmical exercises with rests. PIP PIP


2 P

36. Different kinds of notes may also occur in the same measure,
as in the following examples.

។ |

Pilpol de

$41. The foregoing are given merely as examples of lessons which the teacher should write, and on which the school should exercise. If

Quarter and Eighth rests are practically understood, there will be no QUESTIONS.

difficulty with whole and half rests. The practise of Sixteenth rests may How are different varieties of measure obtained ? $ 31.

be introduced in a similar manner at a more advanced stage of the course. By what do we designate the different varieties of measure? Ans. By || be sung shorter than when succeeded by other notes.

$42. As a general rule, notes, when succeeded by rests, should figures. What do the figures placed at the beginning of a piece of

NOTE. The teacher mast labor to impress this upon the pupils. Teach them to fear a reet, music express? Ans. The contents of each measure.

and always to be prepared to stop short whenever one occurs, so as not to interfere with the Toacher writer different varieties of measure, in the different kinds of time, and requires the time which it requires. Singers are very apt to sing over or across the rests, and to pay bit pagpils to my what figures he sball place at the commencement of each.

little attention to them.



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Thus he goes through the whole scale, singing always to the syllable wa, and continaing until What is beating in silence, called? What is that character called the great majority can sing both the ascending and descending scale, correctly. A few will which requires us to beat in silence. How many kinds of rests are there made to get the right sounds. These cannot go on with the class profitably to themselves, or in common use? Are those notes which are succeeded by rests, to be to the others. By extra exertion, however, almost all these inay learn to sing, but they should

at present merely listen to the others, and if possible practise in a separate class. sung shorter or longer, than in other circumstances? Note. The teacher is referred to the “ Manual the Boston Academy of Music” for a

QUESTIONS much more minute detail of the elements of Rhythm ; and especially for a systematic Rhyth.

What is the second distinction made in musical sounds? What is that mical classification of notes, or an exhibition of primitive and derived rhythmical relations which, although not absolutely necessary, is of great advantage, provided the time and circum- || department called which is founded upon this distinction? Of what does stances of a school will permit its introduction.

Melody treat? What is that series of sounds called which lies at the CHAPTER VI.

foundation of Melody? How many sounds are there in the scale? How

do we designate or speak of the sounds of the scale? Ans. By numerals. PART II. MELODY.

The teacher should now point to the different notes written on the board and ask : Which

sound of the scale is that? &c. § 43. Musical sounds may be high or low. Hence the necessity of that department in music called MelodY, which treats of the pitch of

CHAPTER. VII. sounds. § 44. At the foundation of Melody lies a certain series of eight

STAFF, SYLLABLES, CLEFS, LETTERS, INTERVALS. sounds, which is called the scale.

§ 49. The scale is written on horizontal lines, and

spaces § 45. The scale may be represented by the following notes: thus between those lines. Five lines are commonly used for this purpose,

which together with the spaces are called a staff,





5 4 3 2 1

firth line.
fourth line.
third line,
second line.
first line.

3 2 1

fonrih space. third space. second space. first space.

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2 34 The teacher should write the above on the board. § 46. The sounds of the scale are known, or designated by numer-staff contains nine degrees, five lines and four spaces.

$ 50. Each line and space of the staff is called a degree; thus the als; thus we speak of the musical sound, one, two, three, &c.

$ 51 If more than nine degrees are wanted, the spaces below The teacher should point to the written scale by way of illustration.


above the staff, are used; also additional lines, called ADDED LINES. $ 47. The teacher says: Listen to a sound which I will give you, and which we will consider as one.

-Added line above. He then sings the syllable la (lah-a as in father) on C, on the added line below,

Space above. Treble staff, or second space, Base, (omitting to distinguish between male and female voices,) and requires the pupils to imitate.

§ 48. The teacher now sings one, two, to the syllable la, and requires the pupils to do the same.

Space below.

-Added line below.




ELEMENTS OF VOCAL MUSIC. $ 52. The sound One we will now write upon the first added line below the staff, Two upon the space below, Three upon the first line, and


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F G A в с
§ 57. When the scale is written as in the first example above, a

character called the Treble Clef is used at the beginning of the staff. 4

This is also called the G Clef, and fixes G upon the second line of the staff. The pupils are now required to sing the scale, ascending and descending, to the syllable la, When the scale is written as in the second example above, a character the teacher pointing to the notes on the staff. Notz. Those teachers who prefer only four syllables in Solmization will omit 53 and pass || called the F Clef, and fixes F upon the fourth line of the staff.

called the Base Clef is used at the beginning of the staff. This is also to 54. We cannot, however, omit to recommend the use of seven syllables, as at $ 53, as being altogether preferable to the use of four, as at $ 54. In the use of seven syllables, the association between the syllables and sounds becomes much stronger, and the pupil advances more rapidly in the practical knowledge of the scale.

$ 53. In singing, certain syllables are applied to each of the differ-
ent sounds of the scale. To one is applied the syllable po, (pronounced
doe;) to two, Re, (ray;) to three, MI, (mee;) to four, Fa, (fah, a as in that all the pupils are taught to sing from both.

Note. It is not necessary here to point out the different uses of the Clefs. It is sufficient father;) to five, sol, (sole;) to six, la, (lah, a as in father;) to seven, si, 58. The distance, or step from any one sound in the scale to (see;) and to eight, do, again.

another, is called an INTERVAL The scale is now sung ascending and descending with la, and also with the appropriate syl $ 59. In the regular ascending and descending scale, there are two lables. Note. Those teachers who use seven syllables in solmization will omit section 54 and pass

kinds of intervals, viz: WHOLE tones and HALF TONES. to section 55.

$ 60. From one to two, and from two to three are whole tones; from $ 54. In singing we apply certain syllables to the sounds of the scale, three to four is a half tone; from four to five, from five to six, and from as follows. To one, we apply the syllable fa, (pronounced fah, a as in six to seven are whole tones, and from seven to eight is a half tone. Thus father;) to two, sol, (sole; ) to three, La, (lah, a as in father;) to four, pa; there are 5 whole tones, and 2 semitones in the scale. to fide, sol; to six, LA; to seven, MI, (mee;) and to eight, Fa, again.

Note, It is very important that the pupils should become thoroughly acquainted with the The scale is now sung both up and down with la, and also with the appropriate syllables.

scale, its numerals, letters, syllables, and intervals, before proceeding any further, $ 55. We have written the sound One upon the added line below,

QUESTIONS. but it is often placed upon the second space. The whole scale is then

What are those lines and spaces called, on which the scale is written? written thus.

The teacher points and asks: Which line is this? Which space is this? ? 유

&c. What is each line and space of the staff called? How many degrees does

the staff contain? When more than nine degrees are wanted, what is used ?

The teacher should now write the scale upon the board, both in the

Treble and in the Base Clef, and point as he asks the following or similar Practtse as before.

questions: To which sound of the scale do I now point? The answer 6 56. The sounds of the scale are also named from the first seven should be given by numerals. What syllable is applied to One? to Two bolters of the alphabet, viz: A, B, C, D, E, F and G. (B. A. C.-21|&c. What letter is One? Two? &o. What syllable is C? D? &c. What




numeral is Do? Re? &c. What numeral is C? D? &c. What is the
distance from any one sound of the scale to another called? Ans. An
Interval. How many kinds of intervals are there in the scale? What are
they called? How many whole tones? How many half tones? What
is the interval froin 1 to 2? from 2 to 3? from 3 to 4? &c



$ 61. Having become familiar with the scale in its regular progres-
sion, we must now learn to strike each sound separately, or in connexion arate classes, and sing each of t.e parts alternately.

In singing the above and similar lessons, let the male and female voices be formed into sep-
with any other sound. In order to do this, we must pay attention to each $ 65. seven. Sing the scale and prolong 7. Seven naturally leads
particular sound. We commence with three in connexion with one. to 8, or after 7 we naturally expect to hear 8. It is perfectly easy to

$ 62. THREE. The pupils sing by syllables 1, 2, 3, and repeat sing 7 in connexion with 8, or immediately succeeding to 8. In order,
THREE several times. After which the teacher should write lessons like therefore, to strike 7 correctly, and separately, we must think of 8. This
the following, and require the whole to sing them:

will serve as a guide to 7.

$ 66. The teacher gives out similar lessons to the following: 5878,
3878, 1878, 1387, 3587, 1587, 187, 387,587,&c. Also, 17,37,57,&c

Lessons like the following may be written and sung in one or two parts.

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