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put an immediate ftop to the hoftile proceedings of feveral of the provinces. In the mean time, that France might not be behind-hand with Pruffia, her reprefentations were fupported by certain military operations, and a body of fourteen thoufand men was ordered to affemble near Givet in the bifhopric of Liege, under the direction of the count de Rochambeau, late commander in chief of the French auxiliaries in North America.
The two parties that divided the republic daily affumed a more menacing appearance. The adventure of the princefs was immediately fucceeded by the furprise of Wyk on the part of the ftadtholder. This place, though of confiderable importance, as being one of the keys of the fluices, which by their fitness for artificial inundation conftituted the natural defence of the province, was found entirely unprovided with the means of refiftance. Its garrifon did not amount to more than one hundred men, and it surrendered without ftriking a blow. A fimilar fuccefs attended upon the ftadtholderian expeditions againft Haffelt and Harderwyk. At Deventer the capital of the province of Overyffel they were repulfed; Haffelt was foon after recovered by the patriots; and they were also fortunate in a fally from the garrifon of Utrecht, which is faid to have produced a defertion of two hundred men from the ftadtholderian army. These defertions had already commenced in confequence of an increase of pay that was voted to the military by the ftates of Holland. The manoeuvres of the ftadtholder were probably at this time taken under the direction of the Pruffian generals.
On the fourth of Auguft an ad
drefs was prefented to the ftates of Holland by the armed volunteers of the provinces, requiring that, as they had already fufpended the prince of Orange from the office of commander in chief, they would now, upon the eve of the probable commencement of hoftilities, alfo fufpend him from the functions of ftadtholder and admiral general. The propofition being taken ad referendum, was almoft immediately adopted by the fenate of Amfterdam, and by the fourteenth nine towns had declared in favour of the fufpenfion. But the more urgent confiderations, which at this time began to engrofs the attention of the ftates, prevented the question from ever being brought to an ultimate decifion. Meantime the state of affairs, which daily became more perilous and alarming, infpired miftruft and lukewarmness into the leaft zealous of the republican party; and the majority in the provincial affembly, which had lately confifted of thirteen voices to fix, became now reduced to eleven. To prevent the fatal confequences of this change, the camp formed at Woerden was ordered to make a circuitous progress through the province, and under
their influence the town councils were changed, particularly at Delft and Hoorn; the more confiderable towns remaining unalterably attached to the patriotic party. By the fame means the rural affociations in favour of the ftadtholder wer overpowered and difperfed; and the inhabitants of the Hague kept in awe, who feem to have difplayed a continual difpofition to enforce the caufe of the prince by riot and diforder. Friefland, a province immemorially diftinguished by an ardent zeal for liberty, and which appears
in fome late transactions to have been rather overborne by cabal, than converted in difpofition, endeavoured to refume its former independence. Franeker in particular declared itfelf in favour of the democratical cause, and an affembly of ftates was convened in that place in the beginning of September, by which that province feemed likely to be brought into a fituation not lefs divided than that of the province of Utrecht. Preparations were made about the end of Auguft for the fiege of Utrecht; batteries were erected on each fide, and fome inundations effected. But both fides were unwilling to proceed to extremi ties, and waited with anxious fufpence for that interference of foreign powers, which feemed every day to become more inevitable.
A fecond memorial of the king of Pruffia upon the fubject of the treatment experienced by his fifter was delivered to the ftates of Holland on the third of Auguft. He declared, that he regarded the fufpicions of tumult to have taken place at the Hague on the arrival of the princefs, which were announced in the answer to his former memorial, as a new offence. He infifted upon a peremptory and complete fatisfaction, and added, that he expected from their prudence and their farther deliberations upon the fubject an immediate and unequivocal anfwer. In the mean time the difpute was put into a feeming train of negociation, or rather a hoftile confultation was held at Nimeguen refpecting the most ready and effectual means of reducing the ftates of Holland to discretionary fubmiffion. In this confultation the duke of Brunfwic affifted on the part of the king of Pruffia, and Mr. James Grenville, 1789.
coufin to the marquis of Buckingham, on the part of Great Britain. The ultimatum of the king of Pruffia is faid to have been, a requeft from the ftates of Holland to the princefs of Orange that she would vifit their province, the restoration of the stadt holder to all his conftitutional functions and to the command of the garrifon of the Hague, the recal of the troops of Holland from the ter ritories of the province of Utrecht, and the appointment of mediators to fit at Utrecht for adjufting the difputes of that province, two of them to be selected from to be felected from among the deputies in the ftates general, their deliberations to be held in concert with the courts of Pruffia, England and France, whofe interference had been demanded, and their decifion to be final. The ftates of Holland were required to answer thefe propofitions in fourteen days, the congrefs of mediation if it took place was to affemble in fix weeks, and their confultations to terminate in three months from their commencement.
A circumstance took place at this time for which it is not eafy to affign a fufficient reason, but which is probably to be traced to the inconfiftent and wavering character of the archbishop of Touloufe. The marquis de Verac, who had for fome time been the French ambassador at the Hague, who had under former adminiftrations affifted the cabals of oppofition in the ftates of Holland, and for that reafon was looked up to by the republican party as a principal fource of their confidence, was recalled home. Perhaps this meafure was intended as a leffon to the party to warn them to greater temper and moderation in their proceedings. But it did not produce that effect. France had oriD ginally
ginally affifted in blowing up the flame of civil difcord, but it was not in the power of France to extinguish it. It however effected another purpose. It enabled all Europe to predict, what the French adminiftration itself was probably unable to predict, that it was uncertain whether the French would at all cooperate with their Belgic allies, but that, if they did, their co-operation would be feeble, tardy, irrefolute and ineffectual.
The allies of the ftadtholder, being thus eventually delivered from all apprehenfions of fpeedy hoftility on the part of France, had ftill however fomething to apprehend from other European powers, and particularly from the emperor. This prince, who could not but behold with a jealous eye every acceffion of power in the scale of Pruffia, is faid to have already fignified to that court, that he could not be an indifferent fpectator of any violent measures that might be adopted against the Dutch republic. The ftadtholderian powers however difcovered the means of engaging the attention of the emperor without fuffering him to difturb them in their projects. There is confiderable reafon to believe that the declaration of war of the Turks against the Ruf fans, which took place about this time, owed its existence to their intrigues, and was defigned for the purpose we have mentioned, it being confidered by them as very uncertain what period of time it would require to fettle their projected revolution in Holland upon a permanent bafis. Thus Europe and human nature would feem to be indebted to them, not only for the deftruction of the liberties of a celebrated and venerable republic, but for precipitating at
leaft, as a fubordinate ftep in this tranfaction, a war, which has already raged for near three years, which has cut off in its progrefs thousands of the human race, which has actually drawn five great European powers into its vortex, and which threatens every moment to extend its deftructive contagion to countries the moft diftant from the original fcene of action.
Sir James Harris, the ambaffador of the court of London, prefented his public memorial to the ftates general upon the fubject of mediation on the fourteenth of Auguft. The court of Verfailles had been induced to explain itself upon this article by the immediate appli cation of the ftates of Holland, and the English ambaffador affigned as the motive of his declaration the favourable fentiments refpecting Great Britain that had been expreffed by the ftates of Zealand; at the fame time mentioning the anxiety of the king for the restoration of their internal tranquillity, the maintenance of their real conftitution, and the prefervation of the rights and privileges of all its members. The memorial of Pruffia, which was intended as the counterpart of this, and which was not brought forward till the fifth of September, spoke in a ftill higher tone. It was prefented at the infligation of the states of Guelderland and Amersfort, and expreffed the interest which was taken by Frederic William in their peace and tranquillity; and his ardent defire, that the ancient conftitution, which had been shaken to its foundations, fhould be re-eftablifhed by an amicable adjustment, and that they might radically and finally extirpate the calamities that threatened the republic.
The answer of the fates of Holland
land to the memorial of Mr. de Thulemeyer, was delivered on the eighth of the fame month. It had been voted upon the propofition of the deputies of Dort, the majority confifting only of ten voices; and it did not materially differ from their anfwer to his firft memorial on the fubject of the princefs. The propofition of the fenate of Amfterdam, which was rejected, was for fending, as a particular mark of refpect, two deputies to the king at Berlin, to explain all the circumftances of this unfortunate transaction.
The next day, which was Sunday, Mr. de Thulemeyer delivered to the grand penfionary of Holland, a verbal note, containing the regular and public ultimatum of the king of Pruffia in this interefting controverfy. He required, that the states fhould write a letter to the princefs, acknowledging the error of which they had been guilty in imputing to her difhonourable views, requefting her prefence among them, and promifing to punish those whom the fhould point out as having offended her. She at the fame time engaged to mediate with the king her brother a mitigation of the penalty. The king offered to choose the Hague or any other town of the republic as the fcene of the conferences; and in the mean time demanded, that the states of Holland should at least leave the matters at iffue as they now ftood, and not proceed to any fufpenfion or depofition of the ftadtholder from his functions. An answer to this notification was required to be given in four days from its communication.
Scarcely had Mr. de Thulemeyer thus executed the last directions of his court, before a manifefto appeared, figned by the duke of Brunf.
wic, expreffive of the painful neceffity that was impofed upon the king of marching his troops into the ter ritories of the republic, and thus obtaining fatisfaction for the great and infupportable outrage that had been committed against his fifter; an outrage that fprung only from the dif affection and malevolence of one half of the provincial affembly of a fingle province. Under thefe circumftances the duke was reduced to the neceffity of paffing through the territories of provinces, that had no
fhare in the offenfive conduct of the province of Holland; the inhabitants might however rest affured, that no violence would be committed by the troops, and that the king did not propofe in the smallest degree to invade the conftitution, the liberties and tranquillity of the republic. He expected in return that they would quietly permit the march of his army, and he required them to furnish his forces with every thing that might be neceffary to them. Of the fame date with this manifefto a letter was delivered from the king of Pruffia to the states of Overyffel, requiring a free paffage for his troops; a demand, which this affembly had the magnanimity and gallantry, though unable to counteract the march of the Pruffians, to refuse, because it was contrary to the tenour of the union of Utrecht. Meanwhile in this ultimate crifis, the states of Hol land were willing to advance one step further in the mode of conceffion, and declared to Mr. de Thulemeyer their readinefs to fend two deputies to Berlin, to explain to the king the motives and circumftances of what had happened to his fifter.
The duke of Brunfwic entered the territories of Holland on the fourth day from the communication Dz
of Mr. de Thulemeyer. His march, as he had probably foreseen, was rather a triumph than a campaign. Utrecht, the important city of Utrecht, the centre and foul of the democratical measures, Utrecht, that had had the glory of stopping the victorious arms of Louis the fourteenth in the midst of all his infolence and pride, was evacuated on the fecond day from the beginning of the war. In confequence of the fatal precaution of the ftadtholder in feizing upon Wyk and the keys of the fluices, it probably would not have been able to have held out many weeks. But those weeks were of infinite confequence to the republican cause. In that time Amfterdam, Gorcum, and the other great points of the province of Holland might have completely prepared for the reception of the enemy, and the opponents of the ftadtholder would have recovered from the first panic of the invafion. In that time France would have had leisure to choose its party; France, that pufillanimoufly waited to fee in what manner the friends of liberty would exert themselves in their defence, but that at least believed that its intention was finally to appear for their prefervation. The rhingrave of Salm, governor of Utrecht, either from treachery or cowardice, decided the queftion. He did not wait even to fee an enemy.
It seems probable, though we are unable accurately to determine, that it was immediately after the evacuation of Utrecht, that the ftates of Holland declared the rhingrave of Salm field marshal and commander in chief of the troops of the province. This was their laft act of hotility. On the following day, which was the fixteenth, the duke of Brunfwic entered into poffeffion
of the province of Utrecht, and the deputies of Dort, Haerlem, Amfterdam, Rotterdam, Alkmaer and Gorcum retired from the Hague to the metropolis. On the feventeenth Gorcum, Dort, Schoonhoven and feveral other towns fubmitted to the conqueror. The firft of these places made fome fhow of refiftance; but, a few red-hot balls being thrown into the town and fome houses burned, they confented to furrender. The deputies that were left at the Hague came to a vote for difbanding the different corps of volunteers, and late on the following evening refolved to reftore the ftadtholder to all his honours and prerogatives, and to invite him to repair to his ufual refidence. The victory of the prerogative party was fignalifed here and in other places by the breaking of windows, the plundering of houses, and a few other exceffes. It was on the feventh day from the commencement of the invafion, that the prince of Orange made his triumphal entry at the Hague, his chariot being drawn by the populace; the rhingrave of Salm, commander in chief, abfconded, and for fome time was not to be heard of; and the only places remaining to the republican party were Woerden, Naarden, Delft, Amfterdam, and the remote towns of the petty diftrict of North Holland.
The duke of Brunfwic advanced against Amfterdam on the twentyfecond, and feveral leffer actions paffed with various fuccefs, but with a refult extremely unfavourable to the patriots. The ftrong hold of Nieuwerfluys was taken by form; the Pruffians are faid to have becn repulfed at Ouderkerke; and Wefop and Naarden furrendered, having received orders for that purpofe from