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tutor by writing his Life. Another of Turner's works was, an Account of the Life and Martyrdom of Mary Queen of Scotland. To his knowledge as a divine he added that of a politician, and diftinguifhed himself by fome panegyrical orations, relating to perfons and events that made a figure in that age. Two collections of his Epiftles were thought of fufficient importance to merit publication.

William Alan is a name of great eminence among the Roman Catholics of this period. He rofe to the rank of cardinal, and rendered himself particularly confpicuous by his zeal for the converfion of his countrymen, and, what is much more to his difcredit, by his zeal for the fuccefs of the Spanish invafion. Allowance being made for his conduct in this refpect, and regarding him only in his literary capacity, he is entitled to be fpoken of with com mendation. It is faid, that taking him merely as an author, he was unquestionably, for matter, method, wit, learning, and language, one of the most confiderable writers of his age, and that this is allowed by the greatest of his enemies, and by the best critics. This encomium, which comes from the pen of a Proteftant, is perhaps, carried to the excefs of permitting candour to triumph over ftrict juftice. All cardinal Alan's writings are of a theological kind, and chiefly relate to the controverfies of the times; the confequence of which is, that whatever merit there might be in their compofition, they were only calculated to excite the attention of his contemporaries. His beft work is efteemed to be that which treats of the worship due to faints and relics, and in which he anfwered a publication that was fuppofed to have had for its author the lord treasurer Burleigh. The ftyle of Alan's tract has been highly applauded; but ftyle alone, unless there be fomething in the fubject which is of that general nature that is permanently interefting and important, will never demand the notice of a diftant pofterity.

In Thomas Harding we meet with a very celebrated defender of the Romish faith. He was the mighty antago

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nift of bishop Jewel, and was thought, by his own party at least, to have obtained great glory in that capacity, His zeal in the controverfy is fufficiently apparent from his having written no less than feven pieces against Jewel's Apology, in the way of Answer, Reply, and Rejoinder; for religious combatants are very anxious to have the laft blow. That Harding was a man of real abilities we may be fure of, because we have it from the teftimony of an enemy. Humphreys, in his Life of Bishop Jewel, favs, In multis pares junt, et ambo doctrinæ et eloquentiæ gloria præcellentes in many things they are equal, and both of them are eminently entitled to the praife of learning and eloquence.

But of all the Popish divines that flourished in this period, the most noted, and the most formidable to the Proreftants, was Robert Parfons. When we represent him as formidable, we do not mean that he was fo by his writings alone, though they were very numerous, and equal in ability to thofe of any of his brethren; but by his zeal, his activity, and his boldnefs, in fupporting the pretenfions, and carrying on the defigns and intrigues of the fee of Rome. Having quitted the Proteftant religion, in which he was educated, and retired abroad, he entered into the order of the Jefuits, and was the firit Englishman of that order that was ever fent into England. No man could be fuller of the bigoted fpirit of his new profeffion, or a more implacable enemy to the principles of the Reformation, With thefe qualifications, he was regarded by the popes as a proper perfon to be put at the head of the miffion to this kingdom; and he juftified the choice that was made of him, by his indefatigable exertions in the bufinefs he was appointed to difcharge. Being as hoftile to the civil, as he was to the religious conftitution of his native country, he did not startle at the practice of rebellion and treason, but was ardent in promoting the Spanish invafions.

To speak of Robert Parfons in his literary capacity, we may obferve, that his most celebrated work was his


"Conference about the Succeffion to the Crown of England." The obvious intention of the work, which was published under the name of Doleman, was to fupport the title of the infanta of Spain, against that of king James, after the death of queen Elizabeth. In pursuit of this point, the author affumed a bold and manly turn of fentiment and reafoning, which, however malignant in its immediate defign, was capable of being applied to the most valuable and useful purpofes. He made it his chief business to prove, that there are better titles to royalty and government than that of lineal defcent; and that the people, in certain cafes, have a right to depose their princes, and to change the order of fucceffion. Thus was a Jefuit the diffeminator of the grand principles of political liberty; the diffeminator of the principles which have fince been maintained by our beft writers, and converted to the fuppreffion of tyranny, and to the establishment of our free conftitution. It is no difhonour to embrace truth from whatever quarter it comes, or with whatever view it inay originally have been advanced.

We have before obferved, that feveral of the Proteftant divines of this period, who were puritanically inclined, did not feparate from the established church; a conduct to which they were led, partly by their hopes that some of the changes they wished for might at length be obtained, and ftill more by the opinion they had imbibed, that it was their duty to fubmit, even in things which they dif liked, to the authority of the magistrate in matters of religion. There were others, however, who had fuch an averfion to certain ceremonies and veftments, and to the prelacy in general, that they could not comply with the terms of conformity. One of the most refpectable of this fet of men was David Whitehead, a profound fcholar, and who was deemed an excellent profeffor of theology. He had been a chaplain, to Anna Bullen, and was intended by Cranmer for a bishoprick in Ireland. On the acceffion of queen Elizabeth, he was chofen to be one of the difputants against the popish bishops; and her majesty had fuch an


opinion of his abilities and learning, joined, perhaps, with fome partiality to him from his former connection with her mother, that he was offered the archbishoprick of Canterbury. However, she not only declined this high ftation, but refufed to accept of any preferment in the church as it then ftood. He feems to have been a quiet and moderate man, who, though he could not unite with the establishment, did not enter into the angry contests of the times, but endeavoured to do as much good as he was able by private preaching.

Thomas Sampfon appears to have been a more determined and active Puritan than Whitehead. He wrote zealously against the clerical habits, and ftrongly objected to several parts of the ecclefiaftical fervice. His perfeverance in the cause he had efpoufed occafioned him to be imprisoned; and by the particular command of the queen, he was deprived of the deanery of Chrift-Church, Oxford, to which he had been promoted. Sampfon is understood to have poffeffed a very confiderable portion of the learning that was cultivated in that age.

But the most eminent divine among the Puritans of this reign was Thomas Cartwright, fome time. Lady Margaret's Profeffor at Cambridge. He was, indeed, the head of the party, and qualified to fuftain that character by his abilities, his zeal, his literature, and his writings. For his attachment to the principles he had embraced, he went through a variety of fufferings; being harraffed by fufpenfions, deprivations, and a long imprisonment. In the heat of controverfy, Whitgift charged him with want of learning, and afferted, that he had made extracts from other men's notes, and that he had fcarcely read one of the ancient authors he had quoted. To this charge Cartwright modeftly replied, that as to great reading he would let it pafs; for if Whitgift had read all the Fathers, and he fcarcely one, it would eafily appear to the world by their writings. Indeed, nothing could be more abfurd and falfe than the angry prelate's accufation; for, not to mention


that it was confuted by Cartwright's works, Beza, who was, undoubtedly, a competent judge, faid of him, that there was not a more learned man under the fun. The productions of our author were not confined to the points in debate between the established Clergy and the Puritans; for several treatifes were written by him of a more general nature, among which his Confutation of the Rhemish Tranflation of the New Teftament was particularly celebrated. He had been invited to undertake this task by fome of the principal men and firft fcholars of the age. At length, after his various labours and conflicts, Cartwright obtained a peaceful afylum, by the favour of Robert earl of Leicester, who made him governor of his hofpital at Warwick, where he ended his days, in much efteem for his moderate, prudent, and pious behaviour.

Robert Brown muft not be omitted for though he was not particularly diftinguifhed by his literary attainments, he has acquired fome degree of celebrity by hav ing been the author of a fect, called after his own name, the Sect of the Brownifts, who were very rigid and narrow in points of difcipline, and proceeded fo far as to deny that the Church of England, was a true church, and that her minifters were rightly ordained. What renders these feparatifts more worthy of notice is, that they became, in time, the origin of the Independents, whofe confequence in the hiftory of this country will hereafter. demand our attention. As to Brown himself, he was a man of a violent and ungovernable fpirit. At length, after all the contefts he had engaged in, he returned into the bofom of that church which he had pronounced to be popifh and antichriftian, and all the ordinances and facra ments of which he had declared to be invalid. He retain, ed to the last the heat of his temper.

A person of a far more refpectable and feful character was William Perkins. Though his principles led him to Nonconformity, and his practice was fuitable to his prin ciples, he was of a peaceable behaviour, and refrained


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