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1oz. ... : : -tire-INDUSTRIAL REvolution

not all goods are reckoned as wealth.” The goods not reckoned as wealth he does not mention, nor even characterise. As we cannot deal with the question of waste in production and distribution without a standpoint, it is necessary that we should arbitrarily establish one. Spencer and Ruskin, who, bitterly opposed as individuals, strangely enough agree on fundamentals, have suggested the basis for a definition of wealth. The former, in his “Study of Sociology,” says: “Scarcely any decrease is observable in the fallacy that whatever gives employment is beneficial, no regard being had to the value for ulterior purposes of that which the labour produces; no question being asked about what would have resulted had the capital which paid for the labour taken some other channel and paid for some other labour.” According to Ruskin: “To be valuable is to avail towards life. A truly valuable thing is that which leads to life with its whole strength. In proportion as it does not lead to life or as its strength is broken, it is less valuable; as it leads away from life, it is invaluable or malignant.” It is apparent to all that joy, success in life, and personal achievement cannot be measured by money. However, in defining wealth for use hereafter, for the sake of convenience, I shall say that wealth consists of all natural products secured, re-shaped, and transported so as to be capable of satisfying healthful, normal, human wants. Here I have used two indefinite words, “healthful” and “normal.” By healthful, I mean according to the laws of Physiology; by normal, I mean those wants the satisfaction of which gives intellectual and physical enjoyment without causing pain to others or a diminution in their enjoyment, and which leads to a strengthening of the powers mental, physical, and moral, of the individual satisfied. We assume those forms of law and order which make it possible to have regular and secure satisfaction of normal, healthful Wants, Energy spent in anything but wealth-producing is waste. It is no argument to say that labour keeps men busy and moral, and hence produces wealth. This might be true if there were not useful work for every human hand and brain. Examples of waste and weakness in our industrial organisation are too numerous to mention; but here are a few : (1) Two or more railway stations of competing lines close together, while one would suffice; (2) competing steam. ships crossing the ocean half full of passengers; (3) printing and advertising beyond that which is necessary to inform consumers concerning centres of distribution; (4) travelling men, soliciting trade for competitive firms; (5) competing railway lines beyond what is absolutely necessary to carry passengers; (6) fruit, fish, etc., allowed to spoil, or thrown away to avoid low prices; (7) business travelling in a large measure; (8) unnecessary transportation of commodities which can be produced locally as cheaply as anywhere else, save for tributes to non-producers in the shape of rents, etc.; (9) private heating, cooking, and laundrying ; (IO) clothes worn out doing non-serviceable work; (11) non-health-producing things, such as tobacco and whisky to a certain extent; (12) growing crops of wheat, etc., in small fields where machinery cannot be used with profit; (13) use of woman and child labour because competition renders it cheaper than machinery; (14) filthy, little shops stuck in every corner to do the work that a few large centres could do much better. (15) doctors of medicine, financially more interested in having cases than in curing of preventing disease, for its disappearance endangers their livelihood; (16) lawyers more interested in getting fees for law-suits and service than in simplifying law or making it accessible to laymen ; (17) the pressure for a living, making people struggle to preserve institutions which are useless, and do work which is non-productive; (18) production of ugly and useless things for foolish people; (19) millions of unoccupied and non-producers, not only adding nothing useful to the world, but perverting themselves and their offspring by idleness and its attendant follies. Thus it is evident that our present industrial organisation is faulty, just as the crude steamengine is because it wastes energy. The charge of inefficiency, weakness, and crudity made against the present order need not be based upon sentiment about rich and poor or class jealousy, but upon mathematical calculations which can be made as soon as statistical departments turn their attention to the problem. Sec. 8.-Conclusion. It is clear to any unprejudiced mind that a reorganisation of industry is both necessary and desirable, not that one class may benefit at the expense of another, but that the energy and wealth wasted in an irrational system may be saved to humanity, and that the bare struggle for a living may not occupy the best hours of the workers' lives. There is yet remaining the problem of individual development, which must find its solution in the reorganisation of our educational system on the basis of social need and morality. Education from the lowest to the highest form must have for its object the training of the individual, so that

in seeking the fullest satisfaction of his own nature he will harmoniously perform his function as a member of a corporate society. The desire for achievement must not be crushed, but its goal elevated to social service. Human nature must not be made weak and insipid, but trained so that it may find its expression in useful, and not mere money-making, activity. In short, physical and social health must be made the basis of education.

THE ENT,

B I BL I O GRAPHY

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Baines : History of Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain. --Babbage: Economy of Machinery. Benthan : Essay on Fallacies. • Bischoff: Comprehensive History of the Woollen and Worsted Manufactures. Bosanquet (Mrs.): The Standard of Life. Burnley : Wool and Wool Combing. Campbell : Political Survey of Great Britain. Carlyle: Chartism. Past and Present. Cunningham: Growth of English Industry and Commerce. Co-operative Wholesale Society's Annual, 1900. Daly: The Dawn of Radicalism. Draper: Intellectual Development of Europe. Conflict between Science and Relision. Ellison: History of Cotton Trade. --Engels: State of Working Classes in England in 1844. Fabian Essays. Felkin : History of Machine-Wrought Hosiery. _--Gaskell: Manufacturing Population of England. . (1833.) George: Progress and Poverty. Science of Political Economy. Uibbins: Industrial History of England. +Hobson : Evolution of Modern Capitalism. Hobhouse; The Labour Movement.

Hyndman: Commercial Crises of the Nineteenth Century. †: Man before Metals.

-Jones Lioyd : Life, Times, and Labours of Robert Owen. opotkin : Fields, Factories and Workshops. Langlois and Seignobos: Introduction to the Study of History. In this helpful little volume there are “a few pages devoted to the question of evidence which will be an aid to every one desirous of getting at the

truth respecting any series of facts," as well as valuable suggestions for the selection and classification of relevant materials.

Lloyd: Wealth against Commonwealth. Labour Co-partnership.

Marsden : Cotton Spinning,

Marshall : Economics.

Nasmyth: The Student's Cotton Spinning.

Nordau: Conventional Lies. Degeneration.

Rogers: Six Centuries of Work and Wages. Economic Interpretation of History.

*Radiciiffe : Origin of the New System of Manufactures.

Rose : Modern Democracy.

Ruskin: Unto this Last.

Scrivener: History of the Iron Trade. ----Smiles: Lives of the Engineers.

Smith : Wealth of Nations.

Social England, Vols. v. and vi.

Spencer: The Study of Sociology. Principles of Sociology, vol. iii. *Taylor: The Modern Factory System. Tesla: Century Magazine for June, 1900. The Problem of Increasing Human Energy. Thurston: The Steam Engine. ---Toynbee : The Industrial Revolution. **Ure: History of Cotton Manufacture. Philosophy of Manufacture. Walmsley: Electricity in the Service of Man. Webb {o} : The Co-operative Movement. Webb (Sydney and Beatrics) : Trade Unionism. Industrial Democracy. "Worthington: Dwellings of the People. Young : Tours and Miscellaneous Writings.

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