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ercise, and serveth to keep the body in health: for in a slothful peace, both courages will effeminate, and manners corrupt. But howsoever it be for happiness, without all question, for Greatness, it maketh to be still, for the most part, in arms; and the strength of a veteran army (though it be a chargeable business) always on foot, is that which commonly giveth the law, or at least the reputation amongst all neighbour States; as may well be seen in Spain, which hath had in one part or other a veteran army, almost continually, now by the space of six-score years.
To be master of the sea, is an abridgment of a monarchy. Cicero writing to Atticus, of Pompey his preparation against Caesar, saith: *' The design of Pompey is plainly the same as was that of Themistocles; for he thinks that he who obtains the dominion of the sea, must have dominion over every thing else." And without doubt Pompey had tired out Cassar, if upon vain confidence he had not left that way. We see the great effects of battles by sea. The battle of Actium decided the empire of the world. The battle of Lepanto arrested the greatness of the Turk. There be many examples, where sea-fights have been final to the war; but this is when Princes or States have set up their rest upon the battles. But thus much is certain, that he that commands the sea, is at great
liberty, and may take as much, and as little of the war, as he will; whereas those that be strongest by land, are many times nevertheless in great straits. Surely at this day, with us of Europe, the vantage of strength at sea (which is one of the principal dowries of this kingdom of Great Britain) is great; both because most of the kingdoms of Europe are not merely in land, but girt with the sea, most part of their compass; and because the wealth of both Indies seems in great part but an accessary to the command of the seas.
The wars of latter ages seem to be made in the dark, in respect of the glory and honour which reflected upon men from the wars in antient time. There be now, for martial encouragement, some degrees and orders of chivalry, which nevertheless are conferred promiscuously upon soldiers and no soldiers; and some remembrance perhaps upon the scutcheon; and some hospitals for maimed soldiers, and such like things. But in antient times, the trophies erected upon the place of the victory; the funeral laudatives and monuments for those that died in the wars; the crowns and garlands personal; the style of Emperor, which the great king of the world after borrowed; the triumphs of the Generals upon their return; the great donatives and largesses upon the disbanding of the armies, were things able to inflame all men's courages. But above all, that of the triumph amongst the Romans, was not pageants or gaudery, but one of the wisest and noblest institutions that ever was: for it contained three things; honour to the general; riches to the treasury out of the spoils; and donatives to the army. But that honour perhaps were not fit for monarchies, except it be in the person of the monarch himself, or his sons; as it came to pass in the times of the Roman Emperors, who did impropriate the actual triumphs to themselves, and their sons, for such wars as they did achieve in person; and left only for wars achieved by subjects, some triumphal garments and ensigns to the general.
To conclude: no man can, by care taking (as the Scripture saith) add a cubit to his stature, in this little model of a man's body: but in the great frame of Kingdoms and Commonwealths, it is in the power of Princes or Estates to add amplitude and greatness to their kingdoms. For by introducing such ordinances, constitutions, and customs, as we have now touched, they may sow Greatness to their posterity and succession. But these things are commonly not observed, but left to take their chance.
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A HERE is a wisdom in this beyond the rules of physic. A man's own observation what he finds good of, and what he finds hurt of, is the best physic to preserve Health: but it is a safer conclusion to say, "This agr eth not well with me, therefore I will not continue it," than this, "I find no offence of this, therefore I may use it." For strength of nature in youth passeth over many excesses which are owing a man till his age. Discern of the coming on of years, and think not to do the same things still; for age will not be defied. Beware of sudden change in any great point of diet; and if necessity enforce it, fit the rest to it; for it is a secret both in nature and state, that it is safer to change many things than one. Examine thy customs of diet, sleep, exercise, apparel, and the like: and try, in any thing thou shalt judge hurtful, to discontinue it by little and little; but so as if thou dost find any inconvenience by the change, thou come back to it. again: for it is hard to distinguish that which is generally held good and wholesome, from that which is good particularly, and fit for thine own body. To be free minded, and cheerfully disposed at hours of meat, and of sleep, and of exercise, is one of the best precepts for long life. As for the passions and studies of the mind; avoid envy, anxious fears, anger fretting inwards, subtile and knotty inquisitions, joys, and exhilarations in excess, sadness not communicated; entertain hopes, mirth rather than joy, variety of delights rather than surfeit of them, wonder and admiration, and therefore novelties, studies that till the mind with splendid and illustrious objects, as histories, fables, and contemplations of nature. If you fly physic in health altogether, it will be too strange for your body when you shall need it. If you make it too familiar, k will work no extraordinary effect when sickness cometh. I commend rather some diet for certain seasons, than frequent use of physic, except it be grown into a custom: for those diets alter the body more, and trouble it less. Despise no new accident in your body, but ask opinion of it. In sickness respect health principally, and in health, action: for those that put their bodies to endure in health, may in most sicknesses, which are not very sharp, be cured only with diet and tending. Celsus could never have spoken it as a physician, had he not been a wise man withall, when he giveth it for one of the great precepts of health and lasting, that a man do vary, and interchange contraries, but with an inclination to the more benign extreme. Use fasting and full eating, but rather full eating;