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blossom, the damascene and plum-trees in blossom, the white thorn in leaf, the lilac tree. In May and June come pinks of all sorts, especially the blush-pink, roses of all kinds, except the musk, which comes later; honey-suckles, strawberries, bugloss, columbine, the French marygold, flos africanus, cherry-tree in fruit, ribes, figs in fruit, rasps, vine-flowers, lavender in flowers, the sweet-satyrian with the white flower, herba muscaria, liliura convallium, the apple-tree in blossom. In July come gilly-flowers of all varieties, musk-roses, and the lime-tree in blossom, early pears and plums in fruit, genitings, codlins. In August come plums of all sorts in fruit, pears, apricots, barberries, filberds, musk-melons, monks-hoods of all colours. In September come grapes, apples, poppies of all colours, peaches, melo-cotones, nectarines, cornelians, wardens, quinces. In October, and the beginning of November, come services, medlars, bullaces; roses cut or removed to come late, hollyoaks, and such like. These particulars are for the climate of London: but my meaning is perceived, that you may have ver perpetuam, "a constant spring," as the place affords.
And because the breath of flowers is far sweeter in the air, (where it comes and goes, like the warbling of music) than in the hand, therefore nothing is more fit for that delight than to know what be the flowers and plants that do best perfume the air. Roses damask and red are flowers tenacious of their smells, so that you may walk by a whole row of them, and find nothing of their sweetness; yea, though it be in a morning dew. Bays likewise yield no smell as they grow, rosemary little, nor sweet-marjoram. That which above all others yields the sweetest smell in the air, is the violet, especially the white double violet, which comes twice a year, about the middle of April, and about Bartholomewtide. Next to that is the musk-rose, then the strawberry-leaves dying with a most excellent cordial smell. Then the flower of the vines; it is a little dust, like the dust of a bent, which grows upon the cluster in the first coming forth. Then sweet briar, then wall-flowers, which are very delightful to be set under a parlour, or lower chamber-window. Then pinks and gilly-flowers, especially the matted pink, and clove gilly-flower. Then the flowers of the lime-tree. Then the honeysuckles, so they be somewhat afar off. Of beanflowers, I speak not, because they are field-flowers. But those which perfume the air most delightfully, not passed by as the rest, but being trodden upon and crushed, are three: that is, burnet, wild-thyme, and water-mints. Therefore you are to set whole alleys of them, to have the pleasure when you walk .or tread
For Gardens, (speaking of those which are indeed prince-like, as we have done of Buildings) the contents ought not well to be under thirty acres of ground, and to be divided into three parts ; a green in the entrance, a heath or desert in the going forth, and the main garden in the midst, besides alleys on both sides. And I like well, that four acres of ground be assigned to the green, six to the heath, four and four to either side, and twelve to the main Garden. The green hath two pleasures; the one, because nothing is more pleasant to the eye than green grass kept finely shorn; the other, because it will give you a fair alley in the midst, by which you may go in front upon a stately hedge, which is to enclose the Garden. But because the alley will be long, and in great heat of the year or day, you ought not to buy the shade in the Garden, by going in the sun through the green; therefore you are of either side the green to plant a covert alley upon carpenter's work, about twelve feet in height, by which you may go in shade into the Garden. As for the making of knots of figures, with divers coloured earths, that they may lie under the windows of the house, on that side which the Garden stands, they be but toys; you may see as good sights many times in tarts. The Garden is best to be square, encompassed on all the four sides with a stately arched hedge: the arches to be upon pillars of carpenter's work, of some ten feet high, and six feet broad, and the spaces between of the same dimension with the breadth of the arch. Over the arches let there be an entire hedge, of some four feet high, framed also upon carpenter's work; and upon the upper hedge, over every arch a little turret, with a belly enough to receive a cage of birds; and over every space between the arches, some other little figure, with broad plates of round coloured glass gilt, for the sun to play upon. But this hedge I intend to be raised upon a bank, not steep, but gently slope, of some six feet, set all with flowers. Also I understand, that this square of the Garden should not be the whole breadth of the ground, but to leave on the hither side ground enough for diversity of side-alleys, unto which the two covert alleys of the green may deliver you ; but there must be no alleys with hedges at either end of.this great inclosure: not at the higher end, for letting your prospect upon this fair hedge from the green; nor at the further end, for letting your prospect from the hedge through the arches upon the heath.
For the ordering of the ground within the great hedge, I leave it to variety of device. Advising nevertheless, that, whatsoever form you cast it into, first, it be not too busy, or full of work; wherein I, for my part, do" not like images cut out in juniper, or other garden-stuff; they be for children. Little low hedges, round like welts, with some pretty pyramids, I like well: and in some places fair columns upon frames of carpenter's work. I would also have the alleys spacious and fair. You may have closer alleys upon the side-grounds, but none in the main garden. I wish also in the very middle a fair mount, with three ascents and alleys, enough for four to walk abreast; which I would have to be perfect circles, without any bulwarks or imbossments; and the whole mount to be thirty feet high, and some fine banqueting house, with some chimneys neatly cast, and without too much glass.
For fountains, they are a great beauty and refreshment; but pools mar all, and make the Garden unwholesome, and full of flies and frogs. Fountains I intend to be of two natures : the one that sprinkleth or spouteth water, the other a fair receipt of water, of some thirty or forty feet square; but without fish, or slime, or mud. For the first, the ornaments of images gilt, or of marble, which are in use, do well; but the main matter is, so to convey the water, as it never stay, either in the bowls, or in the cistern, that the water be never by rest discoloured, green or red, or the like; or gather any mossiness or putrefaction. Besides that, it is to be cleansed every day by the hand; also some