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served, are commonly ignorant and mountainous people, that can give no account of the time past; so that the oblivion is all one, as if none had been left. If you consider well of the people of the West Indies, it is very probable that they are a newer or younger people, than the people of the old world. And it is much more likely, that the destruction that hath heretofore been there, was not by earthquakes, (as the Egyptian priest told Solon, concerning the Island of Atlantis, "that it was swallowed by an earthquake"): but rather, it was desolated by a particular deluge; for earthquakes are seldom in those parts. But on the other side, they have such pouring rivers, as the rivers of Asia, and Africa, and Europe, are but brooks to them. Their Andes likewise, or mountains, are far higher than those with us; whereby it seems, that the remnants of generations of men were in such a particular deluge saved. As for the observation that Machiavel hath, that the jealousy of sects doth much extinguish the memory of things,— traducing Gregory the Great, that he did what in him lay to extinguish all heathen antiquities; I do not find that those zeals do any great effects, nor last long; as it appeared in the succession of Sabinian, who did revive the former antiquities.
The Vicissitude or mutations in the superior globe, are no fit matter for this present argument. It may be, Plato's great year, if the world should last so long, would have some effect; not in renewing the state of like individuals, (in unison with those, that conceive the celestial bodies have more accurate influences upon these things below, than indeed they have) but in gross. Comets, out of question, have likewise power and effect over the gross and mass of things: but they are rather gazed upon, and waited upon in their journey, than wisely observed in their effects, especially in their respective effects; that is, what kind of comet for magnitude, colour, version of the beams, placing in the region of heaven, or lasting, produceth particular effects.
There is a toy of which I have heard, and I would not have it slighted, but considered a little— they say it is observed in the Low Countries, (I know not in what part) that every five-and-thirty years, the same kind and suit of years and weathers comes about again, as great frosts, great wet, great droughts, warm winters, summers with little heat, and the like; and they call it the prime. It is a thing I do rather mention, because, computing backwards, I have found some concurrence.
But to leave these points of nature, and come
to men. The greatest Vicissitude of things amongst
men, is, the Vicissitude of sects and religions:
for those orbs rule in men's minds most. The true
u religion is built upon the rock, the rest are tossed upon the waves of time. To speak therefore of the causes of new sects, and to give some counsel concerning them, as far as the weakness of human judgment can give stay to so great revolutions.
When the religion, formerly received, is rent by discords; and when the holiness of the professors of religion is decayed, and full of scandal, and withal the times be stupid, ignorant, and barbarous, you may expect the springing up of a new sect, if then also there should arise any extravagant and strange spirit to make himself author thereof: all which points held, when Mahomet published his law. If a new sect have not two properties, fear it not; for it will not spread. The one is, the supplanting or the opposing of authority established: for nothing is more popular than that. The other is, the giving licence to pleasures and voluptuous life. For as for speculative heresies, (such as were in ancient times the Arrians, and now the Arminians) though they work mightily upon men's wits, yet they do not produce any great alteration in States, except it be by the help of civil occasions. There be three manner of plantations of new sects; by the power of signs and miracles; by the eloquence and wisdom of speech and persuasion; and by the sword: for martyrdoms, I reckon them amongst miracles, because they seem to exceed the strength of human nature; and I may do the like of superlative and admirable holiness of life. Surely there is no better way to stop the rising of new sects and schisms, than to reform abuses, to compound the smaller differences, to proceed mildly, and not with sanguinary persecutions; and rather to conciliate the principal authors I y winning and advancing them, than to enrage them by violence and bitterness.
The changes and vicissitude in wars are many, but chiefly in three things: in the seats or stages of the war; in the weapons ; and in the manner of the conduct. Wars in ancient time seemed more to move from East to West: for the Persians, Assyrians, Arabians, Tartars, (which are the invaders) were all Eastern people. It is true, the Gauls were Western, but we read but of two incursions of theirs, the one to Gallo-Graecia, the other to Rome. But East and West have no certain points of Heaven; and no more have the wars, either from the East or West, any certainty of observation. But North and South are fixed, and it hath seldom or never been seen that the far Southern people have invaded the Northern, but contrarywise. Whereby it is manifest, that the Northern tract of the world is in nature the more martial region; be it in respect of the stars of that hemisphere, or of the great continents that are upon the North, whereas the Southern tract, for aught that is known, is almost all sea; or (which is most apparent) of the cold of the Northern parts, which is that which, without aid of discipline, doth make the bodies hardest, and the courages warmest.
Upon the breaking and shivering of a great State and Empire, you may be sure to have wars. For great Empires, while they stand, do enervate and destroy the forces of the natives which they have subdued, resting upon their own protecting forces; and then when they fail also, all goes to ruin, and they become a prey. So was it in the decay of the Roman Empire; and likewise in the Empire of Alinain, after Charles the Great, every bird taking a feather; and also not unlike to befall to Spain if it should break. The great accessions and unions of kingdoms do likewise stir up wars. For when a State grows to an over-power, it is like a great flood that will be sure to overflow: as it hath been seen in the States of Rome, Turkey, Spain, and others. Look when the world hath fewest barbarous people, but such as commonly will not marry or generate, except they know means to live, (as it is almost every where at this day, except Tartary), there is no danger of inundations of people: but when there be great shoals of people, which go on to populate without foreseeing means of life and sustentation, it is of necessity that once in an age