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This patriotic writer sets out with telling us that all evil arisesTM from moral or physical disease; an observation which reminds us of the shrewd remark attributed to one of our govenors in America, in days of yore, who heard at the came time of the damage done to the plantations, and of the loss of several vessels, by a tempest. "Ah," said he, "there is more mischief done by sea and land, thaaq
in all the world besides."Proceeding on such sure ground, our author professes to indicate the causes of all the horrors which have agitated Europe, during some years but we confess that we are totally unable to keep pace with his imaginations. We therefore hastened forwards to the promised remedy; and this, we find, con sists in a certain degree of reform, and a MORAL UNION of the people; fine words! if it were possible to make all parties of one mind about their signification. Happily for us, however, the terror of invasion is now completely dissipated; and, as that crisis is past, we may hope (to adopt our author's medico-political dialect) that our convalesence, though it may be protracted by accessary symptoms, is highly pro bable. We fear that his faith in medicine, for the cure of state-evils, is rather over-stretched;
-Could he but cast
The water of the land, find her disease,
And purge it to a sound and pristine health,
We would applaud him to the very echo,
What rhubarb, senna, or what purgative drug,
It is very fortunate that our navy doctors, Howe, Bridport, St. Vincent, Duncan, and Nelson, have discovered this great desideratum; and we trust that their successful practice will be effectually followed up. :
Art. 68. Aralian Nights Entertainments; consisting of One Thousand and One Stories, told by the Sultaness of the Indies, to divert the Sultan from the Execution of a Vow he had made to marry a Lady every Day, and have her cut off next Morning, to avenge himself for the Disloyalty of his first Sultaness: containing a better Account of the Customs, Manners, and Religion of the Eastern Nations, the Tartars, Persians, and Indians, than is to be met with in any Author hitherto published. Translated into French from the Arabian MSS., by M. Galland, of the Royal Academy; and now rendered into English from the last Paris Edition. A new Edition, corrected. 12mo. 4 Vols. 14s. sewed. Longman. 1798.
This work is a new translation, from the Paris edition of 1786, of that portion of the Thousand and One Nights which M. Galland had rendered into French. As the original has not been consulted, no addition to the number of these pleasing fictions has been derived from that source; a more copious and correct translation of M.Gal Jand's version being all that is here attempted, and that merit the Editor may claim.
We conceive that few literary undertakings would/contribute more universally to general amusement, than a complete translation, from the Arabic, of the whole series of adventures. The curiosity and interest which they so powerfully excite; the luxuriant descriptions with which they abound; and the accurate delineations of eastern manners, or (to speak more correctly) of the manners of the MosJems, which they exhibit; will always attract more attention than is usually allotted to the extravagant incidents of fabulous narrative. Colonel Capper (who considers the whole series as the production of one author) fiequently remarked the attention and pleasure with which the Arabs, in the desert, sat round a fire listening to these stories; and forgetting, in imaginary scenes of delight, the fatigues and hardships with which, an instant before, they were entirely overcome. Such, indisputably, is the force of imagination; and such is the ardour with which the natives of the East enter into fabulous recitals. We are by no means so clear that the tales, to which the Colonel saw them listen, were the identical tales contained in the One Thousand and One Nights. There is an infinite variety of similar productions current in the East; and we know from un doubted authority that this work is scarce, and procured with much difficulty, even at Mecca. We are still more doubtful of his sup'position that all these tales are the productions of one author; their great number, and unequal merit, afford at least a presumption of the contrary. We think it not improbable that, towards the end of the Califat, a collection of national stories was made by some Arabian; certainly, not a learned one; who connected and disfigured them by a gross anachronism. The adventures are mostly placed in the reign of Harun, surnamed al Reshid, or the Just; some of them much later: but our collector has caused them to be related to a prince of the Sassanian dynasty of Persian monarchs, Is it possible that the author of these tales, come of which possess very superior merit, should be ant that, long before the time of al Reshid, the race of Sassan was extinct? Is it not much more probable that the introductory tale, in which this anachronism is found, and which is manifestly meant to connect the rest, is the work of some illiterate person, of a later period? We do not advance this opinion as a dogma, but the Oriental scholar will decide to which supposition the scale of probability preponderates.
It only remains that we point out an error which occurs in a note to the preface, where the Genli or Jin of Arabian mythology is said to be the same with the Div of Persian romance, and with the Devatas of the Hindu Puranas., Whether the editor owes this mistake to M. D'Herbelot, or to Mr. Hole, we have not leisure to examine; and we must content ourselves with remarking that the actions and attributes ascribed to each bear no similarity to justify the assertion. The Persian Div is an evil spirit; the Devata, so far from being malignant, are superior emanations of the creative power, destined to preside over the operations of nature, and to perform the same functions which were allotted to the subordinate deities of Greece and of Rome. There is room for an interesting discussion
on these aerial forms of Oriental creation but the result would not, in our opinion, establish the hypothesis to which we object. Ham Art. 69. The Good Schoolmaster, exemplified in the Character of the Rev. John Clarke, M. A. formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and successively Master of the Schools of Shipton, Beverley, and Wakefield, in the County of York. By Thomas Zouch, M. A. & F. L. S. 4to. IS. Robson, &c. $798. An effort to bring obscure merit of whatever kind into light, by Conferring on it just and appropriate praise, however the execution may succeed, is highly laudable in its design. To the respectable writer before us we were, not long ago, indebted for a valuable republication of this kind; and the present biographical tract exhibits the same disposition to embalm the memory' of a very useful member of society. We cannot think, however, that Mr. Zouch has been per fectly faithful to his intention of a plain and artless delineation of character. For the justice of this remark, we refer our readers to the paragraph relating to Mr. Clarke's literary attainments :
With respect to his literary attainments he was equal to most of his contemporaries. His knowledge was not merely confined to those books which are usually introduced into our schools. He thoroughly understood the Poets, the Orators, the Historians, the Philosophers, the Critics of Greece and Rome. He had explored their writings with accuracy and precision. His philological and grammatical acquirements were the result of painful and rigid researches. The appellation of "Little Aristophanes," for he was small of stature, was given to him from the encomium with which Dr. Bentley honoured him, after a close and severe examination of his proficiency in the works of that poet. The writer of this Memoir recollects with pleasure that facility of language, that happy flow of expression with which he interpreted the select Comedies of the Athenian Dramatist. When the divine Odes of Pindar were before him, he seemed to be full of that enthusiastic fervor, which enSamed the Theban Bard With Demosthenes he was all energy and vehemence. He sweetly moralized with Plato, as if walking along the flowery banks of Flissus. With Isocrates he conversed mild and gentle as the dew on the tender grass. With Longinus he assumed the dignity of an enlightened master of criticism, breathing the spirit. of sublimity and grandeur."
In the character of a schoolmaster, we were surprised at seeing the following stricture on Mr. Clarke's scrupulous attention to his pupils in their elementary studies >
If any part of his professional character did not so justly entitle him to applause, it was the scrupulous exactness which he observed in the revising and correcting the exercises of his pupils. A perfect Judge of fine writing, I had almost said an hypercritic, he assigned to that employment a much larger allotment of time than seemed to be consistent with his other engagements. He scrutinised every word; he weighed every syllable, with a diligence which was not, perhaps,
* Walton's Lives, see Rev. vol. xxiv. p. 136.
Surely a minute attention to young scholars, especially, cannot be considered as a fault in a tutor, when we reflect how much assiduity is requisite in learning the rudiments of any science.-In general, the character of a good schoolmaster is accurately drawn by Mr. Zouch; and we read with regret that so much merit as Mr. Clarke possessed in his professional pursuits was not better remunerated.
In this tribute to his friend's memory, Mr. Zouch has shewn an affectionate heart, and a cultivated understanding.
In the 1st page, Exhibition to the University seems an improper phrase.
Art. 70. A concise Epitome of the History of England, on Thirty-six Copper plates, being a Representation of Dacier's Medals of the Sovereigns of England, with the Addition of their present Majesties. To which is annexed, a succinct Account of the principal Occurrences that took place during each Reign. Designed for the Amusement and Information of Youth. Small Pocket Size. 7s. 6d. bound. Knott.
A folio edition of Dacier's medals was published about two years ago by Mr. Pye. They were then offered to the public merely as ornamental engravings, on six plates, each containing six medals; and we understand that only 100 impressions were worked off, on impe rial 4to. at the price of one guinea. An idea has since presented itself, that these engravings might be rendered useful and agreeable to the rising generation: which idea is here realized by the gant little publication. As the delicacy of the plates will not admit of numerous impressions, the experiment, we are informed, is here made on a small scale.-Many have been the abridgments of the History of England, but none similar to this; which is now submitted to the approbation of those who have the care or instruction of youth. The editor assures us, in his prefatory advertisement, that the best authorities have been consulted,' in sketching the leading features of each reign.
We think that most juvenile readers will be pleased with the perusal of this pretty Lilliputian History of England, and may derive from it some information of the principal events of each reign.
Art. 71. A Letter to the Women of England, on the Injustice of Mental Subordination. With Anecdotes. By Anne Frances Randall. 8vo. pp. 104. 2s. 6d. Longman and Rees. 1799This advocate for the ladies, in the old cause of the equality of the sexes, declares for carrying the question by force and arms. persuaded that women are not only as wise, but as strong as the other She is sex; and we must suppose her confidence in her own arm to be wellfounded, though we have not the honour of her personal acquaintance. Writers who boast of so much muscular power may, indeed, reckon on the deference of us toothless critics; for we feel no desire that the lady should" set her ten commandments in our face" but we would humbly beg this literary Thalestris to remember, that there is no restraint laid on female authors, either by the laws or manners of the country; of which her list of distinguished female writers, and
the publication of her pamphlet, are sufficient proofs. Our own opi nion is indeed rather different from hers. Far from considering women as oppressed, we think that their influence is almost unlimited; and we feel grateful, if they relinquish to men the empty advantage of cultivating the harsh ungenial soil of abstract science, instead of taking to themselves all grounds of praise, as well as all admiration, and making us mere hewers of wood, and drawers of water.
Miss or Mrs. Randall's indignation against male tyranny has really led her into some hasty assertions. In speaking of the cruelties exercised on women accused of witchcraft, she says, We do not read in history of any act of cruelty practised towards a male bewitcher; though we have authentic records to prove, that many a weak and defenceless woman has been tortured, and even murdered by a people professing Christianity, merely because a pampered priest, or a superstitious idiot, sanctioned such oppression. This is a mistake. Of many instances which might be produced, we shall mention only two, which immediately occur to us; Anne Dubourg, a Counsellor of Paris, and Urban Grandier, a priest, who were both burnt on charges of witchcraft Possibly Mrs. R. might take the former for a woman, from his Christian name.
If we might presume to mention another observation which has occurred to us, we would confess that we were startled on finding, in the writer's catalogue of literary ladies of the eighteenth century, some distinguished as Greek and Latin' or 'Hebrew Classics,' who are not known to have written any thing in those languages.-On wiping our spectacles, we began to perceive that the author only meant to inform us that those ladies were classical scholars. We ob serve, however, only four thus recorded; which we consider as a proof of the imperfection of the list, not as evincing a deficiency of knowlege in the sex.
We forbear any farther remarks on this vigorous and impatient writer; lest we should have occasion to exclaim, with the gentleman who was knocked down by an uncomplying mistress;
"Those frowns are cruel, but that fist is death!"
Fer! Art. 72. Thoughts on Means of alleviating the Miseries attendant upon common Prostitution. 8vo. 1s. 6d. Cadell jun. and Davies. 1799. The common prostitute may reply with the Countess, in the Tragedy of the Mysterious Mother by the late Lord Orford, on being asked, "Is not virtue Happiness - "I know not that.-I know that vice is torture."
This torture the author of the pamphlet before us very pathetically describes; and it is impossible to glance a thought towards this wretched class of females, without wishing that the wise and the virtuous would take their case into serious consideration. The motive which dictated these pages, as well as the genius which shines in them, deserves praise yet we question whether the remedy for alleviating
*, Our readers will recollect that the female name of Anne has frequently been borne by men in France, and sometimes in this country.