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the misery here deplored would be very effectual. Poor-houses have
done little towards annihilating poverty; and we fear that Peniten-
tary-houses would be as little efficacious in banishing prostitution.
Moral maladies require moral remedies. So extensive and pervading
an evil is not to be cured by private exertion, and by the
efforts of benevolent subscribing societies. When prostitution, and
an unsanctioned intercourse between the sexes, prevail to any extent,
very limited
it is fair to look for the cause to difficulties thrown in the way of
marriage, either by improvident laws, or by the unavoidable expences
of life; to the existence of a wrong mode of education; to the want
of affording the sex proper protection; and to the cherishing of cer-
tain rigid principles, which prevent the return to virtue. Men in so-
ciety are the creatures of their civil and religious institutions and
principles, and of the habits and circumstances which these generate.
A multitude of common prostitutes indicates a defect in the practical
code of ethics; it shews that there are certain principles of conduct
tolerated, which, though they may not sanction vice, do at least take
from the idea of its deformity;-it indicates also, that the natural in-
clination of the sexes towards each other is not so properly contem-
plated by the law as it ought to be; and moreover, that the progress
of refinement and luxury has in some cases prevented the possibility of,
and in others the inclination to, an union for life.

While man is allowed to roam shameless "through the wiles of love," the evils of prostitution may with justice in a general view be laid at his door: but it not unfrequently springs from the corruption of the female mind, when man is the dupe and woman the seducer.



Cadell jun. and Davies.


Art. 73. On the Excellence of British Jurisprudence, preached 10th March 1799, in the Cathedral Church of Salisbury, before. the Judges of Assize. By William Coxe, A. M. F.R.S. F.A.S. Rector of Bemerton. 8vo. IS. This sermon is admirably suited to the occasion on which it was delivered. Mr. Coxe compresses into a narrow compass an account of the British Legislature, and particularly that part of it which respects criminal jurisprudence. To this object it is impossible to direct our view without the highest satisfaction. Our criminal courts, indeed, exhibit a beautiful feature of the British Constitution. If it be not perfect, there is none on earth more so.. serves, This Constitution unites the wisdom of the most complicated, Mr. C. justly obwith the facility of most simple forms, and is, as nearly as the works of frail and feeble man can approach perfection, perfect in all its parts. All classes of society are blended without confusion, and yet distinguished without opposition or separation. There is no person so exalted, who can offend with impunity, there is no person so humble, to whom in favour of industry, perseverance, or genius, the road to honour and wealth is not open. This Constitution is so well adapted to all conditions of life, that every man is at once the guardian, the censor, and the surety of his neighbour.'


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The profits of the sale of this sermon, we are told, will be priated to the use of the Salisbury Infirmary.





Art. 74. A Defence of Itinerant and Field Preaching: preached be fore the Society for Gratis-Sabbath-schools, 24th December, 1797, in Lady Glenorchy's Chapel, Edinburgh. By Grenville Ewing, Minister of the Gospel. 8vo. pp. 58. 18. Ogle. 1799.

The beautiful imagery of this writer's text (Prov. i. 21, 22.) is llustrated and exemplified daily, and its truth is continually estab lished. Wisdom, indeed, orieth without, she uttereth her voice in the streets, &c. Yet we can scarcely suppose that this preacher, a man of sense as he undoubtedly is, would explain metaphorical language, highly but justly wrought, in a literal manner; and hence extract an argument in support of the practice mentioned above. However, he proceeds to furnish a long list of street-preachers, &c. from the days of Enoch the seventh from Adam, to the time of our Saviour, and his apostles, with their contemporaries and successors, who were employed to disseminate the principles of Christian truth in a dark and ignorant world. When our field-preachers produce their credentials, and prove beyond a doubt, by miracles and similar testimonies, that they are divinely commissioned and inspired, we shall be constrained to allow them due attention: otherwise, we should apprehend that, in a country in which Christianity is known and professed, if the numerous body, to whose office it more directly belongs, applied themselves with assiduity to recommend and enforce its practical truths, the great and important ends of religion and virtue might be attained without much of this interference. Far be it from us to condemn, however, or rashly to censure, well-meant exertions to do good to mankind. Whether the class of men, whose cause is here pleaded, do generally and really understand Christianity, whether they do not talk much nonsense; or whether at least a great part of them do not preach John Calvin rather than Jesus Christ;-these are questions, on a discussion of which we will not enter.

The reader will find in this discourse several judicious observations, and useful thoughts; and the author discovers some energy of language and of argument. The unfettered preaching of the gospel is an object for which he contends;-he discards a mere political religion, though we do not perceive that he objects to the trammels of creeds and conCessions.



We are obliged by the compliment paid to us by J.; and, had we fortunately some of that leisure which he professes to enjoy, we would duly attend to his lucubrations. As it is, we can only advise him to favor some respectable magazine with his remarks and observations.

Other letters remain for consideration.

The APPENDIX to VOL. XXIX of the Monthly Review, N. S. will be published on the 1st of October next, with the Number for September, as usual.

P. 473. C.27. for last works, r. lost works. 450. title of Art. 25. insert the bookseller's name, Faulder.

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ART. I. Nouvelle Architecture Hydraulique, &c. i. e. New Hydraulic Architecture, containing the Art of raising Water by means of different Machines; of constructing in that Fluid; of directing it; and generally of applying it, in different Methods, to the Uses of Society. The first Part containing a Treatise on Machines, for the Use of those who undertake Constructions of all Kinds, and of Artists in general.-Part II. containing a detailed Description of Steam-Engines. By R. PRONY, Member of the National Institute of Arts and Sciences, Civil Engineer, &c. 4to. pp. 823; exclusive of the Notes, Plates, and Explanations. Paris. Imported by De Boffe, Taylor, &c. London..

ALTHOUGH men are usually excited to particular studies by
circumstances which are accidental, or of little moment,
rather than by any decision of the judgment after a careful
examination of the advantages and disadvantages which each
object of inquiry presents, yet are they eager and zealous in
extolling their own pursuits and depreciating those of other
people. Hence terms of contempt have been interchanged
between the respective advocates for law, poetry, science,
natural philosophy, &c. with little reason and less temper,
That some pursuits are preferable to others is true, because
there are some which are evidently frivolous, or followed
beyond any object of rational attainment :-but, were the
aim and tendency of every research in science and literature
what they ought to be,-either mental instruction or mental
delight, it would be difficult to say why one research was
preferable to another; or to state arguments for the neglect of
any study, which would not operate to its complete exclusion.
APP. REV. Vol, xxix.


Of the many and various arguments, however, to which pride and the fertility of invention have given birth, none seems to have gained a more general reception, than those which have been urged against pure and abstract science. The mathematics have been represented as most unfit for purposes of wealth, of enjoyment, or of ambition; as punishing students with languor and moroseness; rendering them indifferent, even as the gods of Epicurus, to all objects of human concern; exempting them from the influence of passion; and consequently suffering them to partake of a small portion only of the good and evil of life. The disciples of Euclid and Newton are not only not to be moved by trivial accidents and petty vexations, but are insensible even as Archimedes while the sword of death was descending on him.

These arguments, which are plausible because they are in part just, have been deemed incontrovertible by some who have not sufficiently considered the nature of the human mind, of abstract science, and of the true object of life; in general, too, they have been urged by men who have not been distinguished by variety, by extent, nor by accuracy of knowlege; by men who have neither added to truth, nor embellished it *.. The defence of the mathematics has been rare, because the cultivators of this science have not been very ambitious of gaining the public suffrage in favour of its propriety and advantages: but the defence has been made: it has been urged that the mind has its wants, as well as the body; that the food of the mind is truth, and that truth, genuine and sure, is to be found in the mathematics; that it is desirable to reason justly, although on frivolous subjects; and that the science, therefore, is worthy of regard, which gives to the mind a habitude of just argumentation, and renders it pliant to truth. On reasons like these, has the vindication of what may be called the spiritual and philosophical utility of the mathematics been conducted. Its gross and material utility furnishes a not less sure and ample ground of defence; and this ground is to be sought amid the variety of inventions which add to the comforts and luxuries of society, and amid those arts by means of which commerce is conducted with safety and expedition +. In this subserviency of spe


Fontenelle says that "men, indulging a species of revenge, abuss what they do not understand, or what is hard to be understood; and the mathematics are difficult of access, thorny and ardnous."

The following passage, from the celebrated preface to the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences, illustrates and enforces what

we have said


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culative truth to abstract good, in this investment of abstract con483 ceptions with power, consists what Bacon calls, "the deep, fruitful, and operative study of the sciences ;" and indeed the advantages to be derived from the co-operation of scientific and mechanical îngenuity are too evident, and too demonstrable, to be denied. On this account, the impugners of the mathematics have thought to deprive them of their fairest title and most weighty recommendation, by asserting that improvements in the mechanical arts rarely originate from merely speculative philosophers, but are due to the genius of mechanics who are unread and unlearned in the subtile, connected, and refined reasonings of an Euclid, a Newton, or an Euler. indeed partly true: it is in a great measure warranted by expeThis assertion is rience, and may be made probable by an examination of the mental habits and modes of reasoning induced by the study of pure and abstract science.

Considering the truth of the assertion as established à posteriori, it may be observed that, although the examples of a Newton and a Galileo might be adduced, and of an Archimedes who rose from his figures to animate and direct powers which scattered dismay and ruin over the arms of the most 'warlike nation on earth, yet the great benefactors of the arts have been men who were not trained in all the discipline of

"We have a moon to enlighten us during our nights: of what concernment to us is it that Jupiter should have four? Why so many tedious observations, so many fatiguing calculations, to obtain an exact knowlege of their courses? We shall not be more enlightened; and nature, which has placed these small stars beyond the, view of our eyes, seems not to have intended them for us. reasoning so plausible as this, we ought to shun the observation of Influenced by satellites with a telescope, and the investigation of their motions: -yet it is certain that we should thus be

great losers.

"Whoever is even slightly acquainted with the principles of navigation, and of geography, knows that, since the discovery of the four moons of Jupiter, science has been more benefited by them than by our own: that these moons serve, and will continue to serve, with increasing utility, to make marine charts beyond all comparison more exact than they were in antient times; and consequently to preserve the lives of an infinite number of mariners. Did astronomy derive no other benefit than this from the satellites of Jupiter, it would be sufficient to justify those immense calculations, those observations so assiduously and so scrupulously made, this grand apparatus of instruments, this superb building, devoted to the sole use of the science! In the mean time, the mass of mankind have no cknowlege of the satellites of Jupiter, or such as is confused, and scraped up from common report;-or they are ignorant of the con•nection of these moons with navigation, or even that in late times navigation has been rendered more perfect,"

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