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brothers has no more than 120,000 livres per annum; the other only 72,000. These sums are indeed very moderate; but we believe that an excess on the other side would be far more blameworthy. Those two princes contract few if any debts; while the brothers of Lewis XVI., with an income of upwards of 3,000,000 of livres each, greatly outran their income. The pay of the ministers of state in Saxony is also very moderate; the premier not having above 4500 rix dollars salary.

The Saxon ducats are extremely rare. The Elector, it is pretended, hoards them; and when once they get into his possession, they never again enter into circulation. Whatever degree of credit this assertion may merit, we shall soon find a very excusable motive for his conduct. This prince has an only daughter; and his domi nions, after his demise, devolve to his brother. In case the Elector should die before he has settled her for life, his intention apparently is to leave her an independent fortune, which can only be the result of his frugality. Let us recollect Lewis XV., who, towards the close of his life, was also accused of amassing treasures: that charge was true: but he left 16,000,000 to his daughters. Without such a provision, what would have been their situation at this time?

The Elector is a man of much information. He knows several languages, is very fond of mineralogy, and especially of music. These circumstances will be evident on only visiting his apartments. He may, however, be charged with not encouraging the arts, and accused of withholding from men of merit that protection to which they are entitled from an enlightened prince. His system is neither to commend nor to find fault: the man of talents and he who is destitute of abilities receive the same treatment from him. This conduct of the sovereign must destroy all emulation; and it seems unaccountable in a prince whose attainments distinguish him from the common class.

The Elector has a predilection for all that relates to military affairs; and he often takes the command in the encampments which are annually formed: but, wh n he happens to commit any mistake, it has been remarked that matters are previously arranged in such a manner, as to leave a possibility for casting the blame of it on some officer. Self-love insinuates itself every where.'

Mineralogy is one of those branches of science which our two travellers seem to have kept constantly in view. Of the famous mines at Freyberg in Saxony, they have furnished a tolerable description.

The account of Berlin is introduced by the following ob.


If only the extent of the town, the beauty of the streets, and the outside of the houses, were to be considered, Berlin would be the most beautiful city of Europe. Manheim, Copenhagen, and Petersburgh have indeed large streets at right angles: but no where else do we meet with buildings of such striking exterior; nor with such private houses as would make a figure by the sides of the palace. of Rome. From the place called Lerondel to the gate of Oranien


burg, there is a most noble prospect. All these advantages, however, are counterbalanced in part by great inconveniences; no town is dirtier, worse paved, and in every respect less calculated for footpassengers -except indeed Warsaw.'

Hamburgh, we are told, makes an appearance ill suited to its wealth. It is very uncleanly, and almost continually damp. The finest establishment in the city is generally supposed to be the Orphan-house. Six hundred children are maintained in it. The boys are taught to read, write, and to cypher, with a little drawing; the girls are instructed in reading, writing, spinning, needlework, and embroidery. If there be any thing exc ptionable in this institution, it is that the orphans, who are brought up in it, have too much care taken of them, considering the class and condition for which they are designed; and are too well educated for the sphere in which they are to move. From this charity, most of the Hambro' maid-servants are taken, who in general behave well; the boys are dispersed among the different manufactures. This foundation is entirely supported by voluntary contributions from the inhabitants.

Though, on a moderate calculation, there are at Hamburgh 12,000 indigent persons, no mendicants appear in the public streets. The senate furnishes them with employment, and compels them to work in houses appropriated for that purpose.No estimate can be formed of the exports of Hamburgh, the inhabitants observing the most inviolable secrecy on this head. The French consuls employed there since 1743 have in vain used their endeavours to discover it. A circumstance still more surprising is, that no person can say why this is kept a


The present king of Denmark has not, for several years past, taken any part in the administration of the state; and his son discharges all the duties of royalty. The signature of the king, however, is necessary to all edicts and regulations; which is a sort of restraint put by the ministers on the inclinations of a young prince, whom they fear to see too soon their absolute master. The prince is much attached to military affairs, and his manners and conduct are marked by his prevailing inclination. He is, on the whole, more feared than beloved, though allowed by all to possess a feeling heart and a sound understanding. He is a man of business, and, notwithstanding his youth, free from dissipation. Every indication affords ground for believing that he will be worthy of the throne for which he is designed. The Danish princesses have very engaging persons, and are exceedingly polite. One of them, who is married to the prince of Augustenburg, is deemed a model of female grace and perfection.

In Sweden, it is absolutely necessary for travellers to take provisions with them. After a journey of from 10 to 20 miles, it often happens that nothing can be procured but milk, bad beer, spirits, and bread which is several months old: this is the case even in some towns. Unless the cold weather be well set in, postillions must never be allowed to quit the highway for bye-roads; since, for the sake of shortening the stage by about one quarter of a mile, and sometimes less, they will drive over lakes which are either not sufficiently frozen, or already begin to thaw; and, as the lakes are often covered with snow, the traveller finds himself in the middle of the water without being aware of his danger. Accidents of this sort happen so frequently in Sweden, that the persons annually drowned by imprudence are computed at 2000.

We shall extract, from the Second Volume, some details relating to the customs of Sweden, and the city of Stockholm.

In general, when a person is invited to dinner, it is for the whole day, and to stay supper, which is the custom all over Sweden, even at Stockholm: but only in houses of the second rank. Grace before and after dinner, and a bow to the master of the house, are generally performed: the length of this ceremony, and the extreme gravity with which it is performed by the Swedes, would sometimes have excited our risibility, had not reflection come to our aid. At ceremonious dinners, the healths are toasted out of an enormous tankard, filled with hock or champaign; this tankard is handed about, and every one of the company drinks a few drops, observing some formalities, which must be learnt on the spot; he who commits any mistake is to drink a full tankard, by way of forfeit, which appeared to us somewhat severe. We saw this ceremony for the first time at the table of the Bishop of Gothenburg, a well-informed and very amiable man, who is supposed to be the best preacher in Sweden, and who owes his preferment only to his own merit, being a farmer's son.

There are few towns in Europe so ill paved as Stockholm; which is the more to be regretted, as the king's gardens are the only walk within the town, and as, except in the warm season, they are damp and unhealthy.

The situation of Stockholm is very singular, and extremely pic turesque; it can be compared to that of no other town; it presents, in different places, charming prospects, consisting of steeples, bouses, rocks, trees, lakes, and of the castle, which discovers itself from all points of view. The harbour is beautiful, large, and safe, but difficult of access; so that to reach the open sea, or to work thence into Stockholm, often requires several days, on account of the passage lying between numberless rocks, which cannot be avoided but with the aid of winds from particular points of the compass.'

The Swedish manufactures are yet very far from perfection. The workmen are negligent, lazy, and without emulation. They sometimes begin their week on Wednesday, but never before Tuesday; or, if they repair to their workshops, it is only to sleep them

selves sober. Yet they exact very high wages; and the more they earn, the more they drink: want of money alone brings them back to their work.'

The English at Gothenburg, for a long time, carried on a considerable trade with moss, which in that part of Sweden is produced in abundance: but it was not known what use they could make of it. At length, the Count of Ruuth, having discovered that they extracted from it colours for dyeing, resolved to disappoint the English, and enrich his own country with that branch of commerce. In consequence, he engaged the king to try experiments; which answered so well, that a manufacture of colours was established solely on the king's account. The greatest part of the moss employed for this purpose is the lichen tartareus, which grows about Marstrand. When dry, it is placed under a large indented stone wheel; where, being ground sufficiently small, it is thrown into capacious vats, and mixed with chalk, urine, and other ingredients which compose the secret of the manufacture. Thus it continues standing for six months, during which time it is stirred every day. The materials insensibly thicken, and the humid particles evaporate. At first, the whole substance looks like mire, and then like the husks of grapes. When it has assumed the latter consistency, it is cut small, and dried in a spacious room. After having been dried and hardened, it is ground in mills, reduced to a very fine powder, and put into barrels.-This dyeing material has several times been tried on woollens with great success; the most beautiful colours hitherto obtained are purple, grey, and prune de Monsieur.

The truncheon is still used in Sweden. It is made of bellmetal, and studded with golden crowns from one end to the other. In general, the king gives it on Mondays, at his levee, to one of his adjutants; no one under the rank of colonel receives it; and the temporary possessor of it is invested with a supreme power over every individual under government residing at Stockholm, not excepting even the Princes and Generals; in a word, he represents the king with regard to all military matters. When the king is in Stockholm, this office is usually held during the space of one week.

The mines of Sweden, which present such an extensive field to the curiosity of the naturalist, are here amply described; and those who intend to visit them would find this work an intelligent and useful companion.

Upsala, well known by its famous university, is only a small town, containing about 4000 inhabitants, not including the students; whose number varies, as in all other universities: but who, on an average, may be estimated at 500. If this


town were not interesting on many other accounts, it would merit the traveller's attention from the sole circumstance of having been the abode of those great luminaries, Linné and Bergmann. To honour the memory of the former, a house was erecting in 1791 in the king's gardens.

The Swedish revolution of 1772, for a most accurate and animated account of which we are indebted to a Mr. Sheridan*, is no doubt fresh in the memory of our readers. The circumstances attending it are well known: but the following anecdote, which the present author records as authentic, is of less notoriety:

The king of Sweden had communicated his project to no person whatever, except Lewis XV. The secret, however, transpired, found its way to England, and was imparted to the British minister at Stockholm. The surprize of Gustavus may be guessed. Yet, though this disappointment determined him to hasten by some days the execution, it did not prejudice the success, of his plan. The secret had taken vent in the following manner: Madame du Barry saw the king of France very attentively read a dispatch; and, whether from mere curiosity, or at the instigation of the English ambassador, she took the letter from his majesty's pocket while he was asleep. The contents were made known to the British minister; and several persons at Stockholm had intimation of the design, and even of the day fixed for its execution :-but, when on the preceding evening, they beheld Gustavus presiding at the rehearsal of a new opera till eleven at night, appearing cheerful, and by no means pensive, they could not believe that the morrow was to be the day.'

In general, that prince, on the eve of any important operation, affected to give balls and theatrical representations, in which he seemed to take uncommon interest. It was natural for persons thence to imagine that he was engaged only in rejoicings and amusements.

As the late Gustavus III, was allowed to be one of the most extraordinary characters that ever filled a throne, we shall extract the following sketch of him:

Gustavus joins to qualities which constitute the great king, those of the most amiable man. He has an inexhaustible fund of anecdotes on every subject. In his presence, seldom any trait is quoted which does not furnish him with a clue to another. All periods are present to his mind, and the history of all nations is familiar to him. He frequently has diverted himself with perplexing (with respect to their own country) persons who were accounted well-informed. In a word, it is difficult to be more seducing as a man of the world than he is. If we consider him as a monarch, we shall also pay to him a just tribute of praise and admiration. He is endowed with such qualities as stimulate to great actions, because they decide the suc

* See General Index to the Monthly Review.


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