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served any thing remarkable. Though these observations do not occur sufficiently often, they are for the most part very neat; and we were much pleased to find them most frequent in the class Cryptogamia: particularly in the genus Agaricus, where some little note is subjoined to almost every species; which cannot but tend to throw considerable light on a subject that, till within a very few years, has been considered as a disgrace to science,-a mere
"Pondus iners, congestaque eodem
Non bene junctarum discordia semina rerum." OVID. Metam.
Mr. Abbot has followed the example set by some authors in the Linnæan Transactions, of occasionally adopting our own language for natural history; as a motive for which, he alleges his desire to render his work intelligible to his fair countrywomen. We join with him most sincerely in a wish to promote, among the ladies of Britain, a taste for the beauties of natural history; by devoting their leisure to which, they would be prompted to exercise their neglected talents, and to abstract their minds from those frivolous amusements, which their imperfect education often enables to take a fast hold of them. Perhaps, however, there is not so much difference in the difficulty of learning the two tongues; for stigma, whether used as a Latin or English word, is equally incomprehensible to an unlettered ear; and ovate appears to us nearly as difficult to be understood as ovation.
The preface is written in a pleasant style; and we were extremely gratified to find that, while the author acknowleges his obligations to those friends who have assisted him, he does not forget to introduce a most affectionate remembrance of his wife to the truth of which we can add our testimony, as we have seen a few specimens expanded by Mrs. Abbot, and can safely say that we have seldom known their rivals in beauty, never their superiors.
The work is neatly printed, and is ornamented with six plates; which do not seem to us well chosen, as four of them have already appeared in Mr. Sowerby's English Botany and English Fungi, two books with which few British botanists are unacquainted. The plants figured are, Alchemilla vulgaris, Convalla ria majalis, Viola palustris, Hydnum imbricatum, Peziza cornucopioides, and Lycoperdon carpobolus: but, though these are for the most part rarely found wild in our island, surely it is unpardonable to figure plants so common in every garden. It would have been better to have given plates either of those which the author first discovered; or, at all events, of some which have not yet been published in this country.
Mr. Abbot has in very few instances differed from Dr. Withering; we mean with regard to nomenclature: for he has not followed the Botanical Arrangements in turning the Linnæan system topsy turvy.-On the authority of Hoffman, aided by his own observation, he has made the beautiful variety of Anagallis Arvensis, a species under the name of A. Carulea; and he follows Mr. Relhan in describing Heracleum Angustifolium as distinct from H. Sphondylium; in which latter point we suspect that he is in an error; as we are acquainted with a very accurate botanist, who pointed out to Mr. Relhan, near Cambridge, the leaves of both plants on one stem.
We do not remember that Mr. Abbot was ever before known to the world as an author: but we have very frequently seen his name as one of the most liberal contributors to Mr. Sowerby's two publications before mentioned; and he therefore is not a stranger to English naturalists. The present work does him. considerable credit; and we do not hesitate in pronouncing it a valuable addition to the Botany of Great Britain.
Turner. 1st Art.
ART. XI. Sermons, preached to Parochial Congregations, by the late Rev. Richard Southgate, M. A. many Years Curate of St. Giles's in the Fields, and sometime Rector of Warsop, Nottinghamshire: with a Biographical Preface by George Gaskin, D. D. Rector of St. Benet Grace-Church, London; and of Stoke-Newington, Middlesex. 8vo. 2 Vols. 125. Boards. Leigh and Sotheby.
HE author of these discourses appeared, for the greater part of his life, in the humble station of a curate: but, in so populous a parish as that of St. Giles, he could not long remain in obscurity. Indeed, according to the short memorial annexed to these volumes, his vigilance in attending to the duties of his office, his learning and ingenuity, his diffidence and humility, could not fail of recommending him to regard, and of rendering him in some degree conspicuous. His behaviour was not that which is termed merely decent; it was such as displayed a heart under the powerful influence of religious and virtuous principles. His income was but slender during the former years of his life:-yet he was able to indulge a taste for books, medals, and coins; and for fossils, shells, and other natural curiosities. The manifestation of this taste gained the notice of the Directors of the British Museum; and in November 1784, on the death of Dr. Gifford, he was appointed assistant librarian, an office (says Dr. Gaskin) for which he was eminently qualified.' About this time also he became a fellow of the Antiquarian and Linnæan Societies,
and was constituted rector of Warsop, a valuable benefice: yet he was so attached to his curacy that he would not relinquish it, and satisfied himself with passing some part of every summer at his parish in the country. He died in the 66th year of his age, at the British Museum, 25th January 1795. His collections of books, coins, &c. were sold at an auction which continued one-and-twenty days.'
Respecting the discourses, perhaps some judgment may be formed from the following paragraph, extracted from the edi
They are the productions of a man, whose mind was well furnished and highly cultivated; whose learning was extensive and accurate, particularly in classics, history, and theology; whose principles were formed strictly on the orthodox views of the Church of England, whether we contemplate her primitive episcopal constitution, or her creed; whose high aim was to promote the glory of God, the knowledge of Christ crucified for the salvation of penitent sinners, and the spiritual edification of Christians: whose ministry was exercised with gravity, zeal, and perseverance; whole politics were such as the Bible inculcates, and the primitive Christians gloried in; whose temper was mild and amiable; and the tenor of whose life adorned the doctrine of God, our Saviour.'
The first of these volumes contains twenty-five, and the second twenty-six sermons. Though posthumous, and not intended for the press, the style is on the whole correct; sometimes declamatory, at others argumentative. If we cannot in every instance concur entirely in the author's sentiments, we must approve the sincerity with which they appear to be advanced; and must applaud the spirit of candour and benevolence which he manifests towards those who differ from him, and from the establishment with which he was immediately connected. The sermons have not unfrequently reminded us of old, and what are called puritanical writings, both within and without the English pale, though appearing in a modern and more suitable dress; and many parts of them deserve our sincere approbation. From the judgment which we can form, the parish of St. Giles sustained a great loss in the removal of such a minister as Mr. Southgate;-we can only express our hope that the vacancy is well supplied.
ART. XII. A Geographical and Satistical Account of the Cisalpine Republic, and Maritime Austria. With a Map, describing the Partition of the Venetian Territory, and the New Limits of the Cisalpine Republic. Translated from the German; by W. Oppenheim, M. D. 8vo. pp. 570. 7s. 6d. Boards. Robinsons. 1798.. Na very early stage of the present war, we remarked its necessary tendency to break up Europe into large masses,
and to aggrandize the greater at the expence of the smaller Powers of the Continent. By this process, the relative consequence of Great Britain is continually diminished; because her insular form and geographical position render all European acquisition to her impracticable. A general peace has therefore, at every moment of the war, been her perpetual interest; and must continue to be so, though the whole force of Austria be again directed against France, to be again bought off by a new partition of Switzerland, of Italy, or of Turkey. Ever since the introduction of the partitioning policy, the tendency of each state to aggrandizement seems to have grown in the same proportion as its magnitude: as the dropping of one satellite on the body of Saturn would increase its power of attracting the remaining moons. It is probable, therefore, that all the petty states will ere long be annexed to one or another of the great states; and that country will absorb the largest number, which interposes the fewest delays between its successive accroachments. France and Austria seem to have most inclination for alertness in the task of seizure, and to have most augmented their positive strength by the incorporation of contiguous dominion.
The object of the work before us is to describe statistically, as well what the Emperor has lost as what he has gained in Italy and Dalmatia by the treaty of Campo Formio: a treaty (says the author) which may on several accounts be considered as highly advantageous to the Emperor; for if we compare the territories which Austria has ceded and acquired, we shall find that that monarchy gains a superficial extent of eighty-eight German square miles.'- A further aggrandize ment (he adds) may be expected by the Emperor as well as the Cisalpine republic, which shall be noticed at a proper opportunity.'
The author thus describes the extent and population of the Cisalpine Republic:
The CISALPINE REPUBLIC was created by the French Republic, In the year 1796; it was firmly established, in consequence of the peace of Campo Formio, in 1797; and was acknowledged by his Majesty the Emperor, the Kings of Sardinia, Spain, Swisserland, the Pope, &c. It comprehends, beside the whole of Austrian Lombardy, and part of the former Republic of Venice, the territories of the Duke of Modena, the Papal provinces of Ferrara, Bologna, and Romagna; and so critically are the encircled states of the Duke of Parma situated, that the Republic intends already to aggrandise it
*This word, though not commonly used, will be found in Johnson's Dictionary, and more exactly expresses our meaning here than encroachments.
self at the expence of this and other tottering powers in its neighbourhood.'
The whole territorial dimensions of the Cisalpine Republic contain 3,567 square miles, and 3 447,384 souls, viz.
5. The Duchy of Modena, with the principalities of Massa and Carrara 6. The lands obtained from the Duke of Parma, the Duchy of Guastillo, Sabionetta, and Bozzolla
7. The three legations, Ferrara, Bologna, and Romagna, formerly Papal
8. The territories of the Grisons, belonging to Worms, Cleves, and the Valteline
The four (commonly termed) Italian
Agreeable to this account, a square mile will contain 966 inhabitants. Comparing this with the enumeration collected by order of the government in 1791-94, from the different parish-lists, with the account of authors of veracity, and with the account (Sect. X) collected by the present legislature, no one will doubt the exactness of our account. On the other hand, the ridiculous assertions of the newspapers, with respect to the population of the modern Republic, and the supposed loss of the Austrian Monarchy, will appear most glaring. The number 3,239,572 of inhabitants will, indeed, be deficient in 207,812; but this is owing to the Swiss territories (No. VIII, IX, Sect. II), comprehending 203,000 souls, which territories were annexed to the Republic after the division of it into departments. If the latter number be added to the above-mentioned 3,239,572, the number 3,442,472 of souls will be obtained, and our account will be overrated by 4812 persons only, who are included among the 18,000 of some districts belonging to No. VI, which the Republic took possession of subsequent to its division. The certainty of our account, however, will become stronger by comparing it minutely with the account of the Republic. For example, we give