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to Milan (No. I) 1,116,892 souls, and in the account of the Republic, its seven departments, namely, Adda, Verbano, Tesino, Lario, Delle Montagne, Olone, and Upper Po, contain 1,179,410 inhabitants; again, we give to Mantua (No. II and III) 207,331 souls, and in the account of the Republic, the departments made out of it have only 123,649 persons, because some districts have been annexed partly to the department of the Upper Po, and partly to the department of the Benaco. All these inhabitants, at present, are sensible of no distinction with respect to orders, all are citizens of the Republic, and may, according to the tenor of the constitution, vote in the elec tions of the representatives of the people, and are themselves eligible; whereas formerly the nobility only, and a few inhabitants of the cities, were capable of holding the public functions.'
The extent and population of Maritime Austria are thus particularized.
In virtue of the treaty of peace of Campo Formio, the limits of Maritime Austria commence on the west side of the Lago di Garda, near the confines of the Tyrol, with the little river which passes Gardolo, and passing obliquely through the lake, they extend on the cast to Lascise, from hence across to St. Giocomo; from this place they run through a space of territory, 18,000 feet in length, along the left banks of the Adige, to Porto Legnano, then to the left of the White Canal, the river Tartaro, and the Canal of Polisella, reaching the Po, the left bank of which, as far as the Adriatic Sea, constitutes the boundaries of Maritime Austria. According to this account then, the new province is bounded on the north by the Tyrol, Carinthia, Crain, or Carniola; on the east by Carinthia, Carniola, Croatia, Bosnia, and Albania; on the south, throughout its whole extent, by the Gulph of Venice, the Po, the canal Polisella, the White Canal, and the river Tartaro; on the west by the Cisalpine Republic.'
The portion of territory which Austria has acquired, comprehending the lacunes and islands of the former Republic of Venice, contains a superficial content of 865 German square miles*; viz. of the continent, and the lacunes and isles 625, of Dalmatia and Albania 240 square miles; which territories have, according to the most recent enumeration made by the French, 3,110,000 inhabitants; namely, 2,860,000 souls on the continent, &c. 250,000 in Albania and Dalmatia: so that every square mile contains 3,595 inhabitants, which constitutes a very considerable population; and although it does not, by far, equal the populousness of the Netherlands, yet will, under the Austrian dominion, certainly attain that proportion. The following may serve as a comparison with other States. Germany, a square mile contains on an average 2,190 souls..
German fq. miles. Inhabitants.
*A geographical degree contains fifteen German miles.'
Austrian hereditary dominions
German fq. miles. Inhabitants.
Hungary and Transylvania
All the inhabitants of Maritime Austria consist of, 1. The ancient original nobility, of the nobility created since 1290, and of the nobility who purchased their titles since the war of Candia. 2. The Cittadinanza, or the inferior nobility, and the most respectable families of the citizens. 3. The clergy, at the head of whom is the patriarch, who is entirely independent of the Pope, and styles himself N. N. Miseratione Divina Patriarcha Venetiarum Dalmatiaque Primas; is titled Excellenza Reverendissima, and must always be a Venetian patrician. 4. The common citizens and tradesmen; which class, together with 5. The peasants, is the most numerous. 6. The different foreigners resident in the country, and of German Protestants, Greeks, Arminians, Jews, and Turks.'
The description of Venice occupies a disproportioned extent. Several masterpieces of the Venetian painters and statuaries no longer remain to be enumerated among the curiosities of the town: for they have been sent to that lumber- room of plunder, which the Parisians exhibit as a glory:-but the immovable benefits of the architect remain, and still endear such names as Sansovino and Palladio to the recollection of the inhabitants.
In general, this work gives much information carefully collected, conveniently arranged, and sufficiently compressed. A small but neat map illustrates the geographical instruction.
The translation is composed in good, but not elegant, English- Tay.
Description and Treatment of Cutaneous Diseases. Order I. Papulous Eruptions on the Skin. By Robert Willan, M. D. F. A. S. With coloured Plates. 4to. pp. 110. 15s. sewed. Johnson. 1798.
THE imperfection of verbal descriptions, in conveying the distinctions of cutaneous eruptions, has long been felt and lamented by the faculty. Dr. Willan therefore is entitled to great commendation, for the zeal and industry which he has exerted in order to delineate the varieties of those diseases, and to impart to the eye what cannot be communicated by the choicest expressions. His plates are executed with elegance, while they give a correct idea of the morbid appearances; and they will be consulted with particular satisfaction, by those who have endeavoured in vain to acquire a knowlege of the diseases of the skin from former publications.-We cannot be
expected to present a complete view of this work, the definitions in which consist of figures: but there is great store of curious and useful research in the text, by which we shall profit. Dr. Willan, among much other reading, has carefully investigated the writings of the Arabian physicians, who cultivated this branch of medicine with more accuracy than either the Greek or Latin physicians, and whose labours have long been neglected; and he has drawn from them many things worthy of remark.-The work is intended to consist of Seven Orders, which are to be published separately. The present number contains the order of Papulous Eruptions; the remaining orders are, Scales, Rashes, Vesicles, Pustules, Tubercles, and Maculæ.
The Papule are divided by Dr. Willan into three species; Strophulus, Lichen, and Prurigo.
The Strophulus is a disease peculiar to infants, and known among nurses by the name of the Gum, in this country; he divides it into the Strophulus Intertinctus, or Red Gum; Strophu lus Albidus, or White Gum; Strophulus Confertus, the Tooth Rash, or Rank Red Gum; Strophulus Volaticus; and Strophulus Candidus. These varieties are illustrated by the prints.
In the first, Dr. Willan observes, the child's skin somewhat resembles a piece of red printed linen; and hence this eruption was formerly denominated the RED GOWN, a term still retained in several counties of England, and which may be found. in old dictionaries. Medical writers have changed the original word for one of a similar sound, but not more significant. He thinks that this eruption, and the aphthous ulcerations common in children, alternate with each other; those infants who have the papulous eruption on the skin being less liable to aphtha; and the skin being generally pale, and free from eruption, when aphthæ take place in any considerable degree. He observes, also, that it is dangerous to repel this disease from the surface, by the application of cold water, or cold air. With regard to the treatment, ablution with warm water, the warm bath in case of a repulsion of the eruption, and blistering, are the remedies recommended.
The Strophulus Confertus appears during dentition; and, depending on the irritation excited in the gums, it does not become a separate object of practice. Dr. Willan cautions practition ers against ordering the child to be weaned on the occurrence of this eruption, as it does not imply disease in the mother, or
In the Strophulus Volaticus, an emetic, or some laxative medicine, is advised; to be followed by the use of the Peruvian bark.
The Strophulus Candidus affects infants about a year old, and commonly succeeds some of the acute diseases to which they are liable. The author has observed it after recovery from a catarrhal fever, and after inflammations of the bowels or lungs.
The second division of Papule, the LICHEN, is defined to be An extensive eruption of papule, affecting adults, connected with internal disorder, usually terminating in scurf, recurrent, not contagious.' It is subdivided into the Lichen simplex, L. agrius, L. pilaris, L. lividus, and L. tropicus. For the history and particular distinctions of these disorders, we must refer our readers to the work itself.
The author informs us that he has seen disagreeable symptoms produced, in consequence of repelling eruptions of this nature by sulphureous or mercurial ointments, or astringent. lotions.
In the Lichen agrius, Dr. Willan advises a few doses of calomel, as a purgative; and afterward, for some weeks, the vitriolic acid three times in a day, given in the infusion of roses, or in a decoction of Peruvian bark. As an external application, he mentions the unguentum rosatum of the old Pharmacopæia, or the rose pomatum sold by perfumers.
Under this head, we meet with an interesting account of the prickly heat of the West Indies, extracted from different writers.
The third division, PRURIGO, is distinguished into three varieties; Prurigo mitis, P. formicans, and P. senilis. The first, according to the author, when neglected, often changes its form, and terminates in the itch. In its early stages, the cure consists in frequent bathing, or washing the skin with tepid water.
The Prurigo formicans is described as being generally a symptom of ill health: but it is sometimes produced by drinking a small quantity of some Spanish white wine.-After having tried many remedies ineffectually for the cure of this kind of eruption, Dr. Willan found that fixed alkali answered better than the rest. He gave the natron preparatum, sometimes alone, sometimes in conjunction with sulphur. The oleum Tartari per deliquium, with the addition of a little laudanum, was equally efficacious. Baths prepared with alkalized sulphur, and sea-bathing, have also been serviceable in this complaint.
On the subject of the Prurigo senilis, some remarks are introduced, deserving attention, on the production of insects in diseased states of the skin.
We meet also with some very useful observations respecting. Prurigo considered as a local affection; which are furnished
partly by Dr. Willan, and partly by Dr. John Sims, and which we recommend to the notice of our medical readers.
We trust that this spirited attempt to supply the deficiencies of verbal description will be properly encouraged. The laborious researches, and the accurate discrimination, displayed in the text, render the book a valuable aquisition to practitioners, independently of the merit of the prints; and we shall be happy to see it completed as ably and correctly as it has been begun.
ART. XIV. An Account of the Plague which raged at Moscow, in
It appears that the epidemic here described was greatly increased in its extent and fatality, by the warm attachments and superstitious prejudices of the lower ranks of Russians. They even broke into the plague-hospital, to carry images, to pray by the bed sides of their sick relations, and to embrace the bodies of the dead. What a striking contrast to the cau tious timidity of the Americans, under a similar visitation!-In this riotous overflow of their feelings, the mob attacked Dr. de Mertens's house; and destroyed almost every thing in it.
In the month of September, twelve hundred persons died of the plague daily; though Dr. Mertens thinks that, in consequence of the alarm which had driven away great numbers of the inhabitants, not more than 150,000 had remained in the city.
At length, measures were taken, under the direction of Count Orlow, for suppressing the popular commotions. Hos