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ment, came under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. The property of the whole patent of Portsmouth, and one third of that of Dover was reserved to the lords, and gentlemen proprietors, and their heirs forever. The laws of Massachusetts provided that none but church members should vote in town meetings, or sit as members of the general court: by an act of uncommon liberality at this period, this qualification was dispensed with, as far as it regarded New Hampshire. At the time of the union, New Hampshire contained but about 1,000 inhabitants, and for 38 years, the period of their connection, the terms of the union were faithfully observed.

In 1675, Robert Mason, the grandson and heir of John Mason, applied to the king to obtain the possession of the territory, and rights which had been granted to his ancestor. Notice of this application was given to Massachusetts, and the parties were heard by the king in council

. In 1679, a decree was passed, that New Hampshire should be constituted a separate province to be ruled by a president and council who were to be appointed by the king, and a house of representatives to be chosen by the people. The first assembly consisting of 11 members, met at Portsmouth in 1680. At this session a code of laws was adopted, in style worthy of freemen, that no law or ordinance should be imposed unless made by the assembly, and approved by the president and council.

In the same year Mason arrived in the colony. He had been appointed a member of the council; he assumed the title of Lord Proprietor, claimed the soil as his property, and threatened to prosecute all who would not take from him leases of the lands they occupied. His claims were resisted by most of the inhabitants, who claimed the fee simple of the soil by a more righteous, if not legal title. The peace of the colony was long disturbed by these conflicting claims. Maj. Waldron, of Dover, was at the head of those who contended with Mason, and against him and many others, suits were instituted. No defense was made: judgments were obtained; but so general was the hostility to Mason, that he never dared to enforce them.

Over Massachusetts and New Hampshire, for many years, the same governor presided, but with distinct commissions. After Andros was deposed, the inhabitants of New Hampshire desired again to be incorporated with Massachusetts. This union was opposed by Samuel Allen, of London, who had purchased of Mason's heirs their title to their lands in New England, for £2,750. Allen was made governor of the colony, and by his influence John Usher, his son-in-law, was appointed lieutenant-governor. Under his administration, the disputes, occasioned by adverse claims to land, continued to rage with increased violence. Suits were instituted and judgments obtained; but the sheriff was forcibly resisted by a powerful combination, whenever he attempted to put the plaintiff in possession.

New Hampshire was a great sufferer from the Indian wars. The surprise of Dover, in 1689, was attended by the most shocking barbarities. Maj. Waldron perished, after having been tortured in the

most cruel manner. This appears to have been done out of revenge for the injuries received by the Indians from Waldron. In the whole, 23 persons were killed and 29 carried prisoners to Canada, where they were sold to the French. The war was prosecuted with great vigor. The French, by giving premiums for scalps, and by purchasing English prisoners, animated the Indians to exert all their activity and address, and the frontier inhabitants endured the most aggravated sufferings. Nearly 100 persons were killed or carried off prisoners, at the settlements at Oyster River: other towns were attacked, many persons slain and many carried into captivity.

In 1719, upward of 100 families, from the province of Ulster, in Ireland, emigrated and settled the town of Londonderry. They came from the vicinity of Londonderry, in the north of Ireland, to which place their ancesters had emigrated about a century before, from Scotland. In 1720, they purchased the Indian title, and, although it was a frontier town, it was never molested by the Indians. These settlers introduced the foot spinning wheel, and the culture of potatoes. They also introduced the manufacture of linen cloth, which, for a time, was a considerable source of prosperity.

In 1737, a controversy, which had long subsisted between Massachusetts and New Hampshire, respecting their divisional line, was heard by commissioners appointed by the crown for that purpose. These commissioners, “after a long and angry discussion, fixed upon the present eastern boundary. The southern, they were unable to determine. An appeal to the king was the only mode of adjustment. Tired of the controversy, both parties finally agreed to submit the whole subject to the royal decision. Three years afterward, George II, terminated the dispute in favor of New Hampshire. In regard to the eastern boundary, he confirmed the judgment of the commission

His decision upon the southern line was not anticipated by either party. He substituted the present line for one running due west, from a point three miles north from the mouth of the Merrimac; thus giving New Hampshire a territory of 50 miles in length, by 14 in breadth, more than she had claimed. This enlargement of territory, population, and wealth, gave to New Hampshire a new political importance." *

At the time of the brilliant exploit of the New England men against Louisburg, in 1745, New Hampshire raised a detachment of 500 men, bearing upon their banners the motto given by Whitfield, “Nil desperandum Christo duce.” † The merit of originating this enterprise is believed by many to belong to William Vaughan, of Portsmouth. He had learned from the fishermen the situation, etc., of Louisburg,

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* Barstow's Ilist. of New Hampshire.

† The celebrated Mr. Whitfield was at this period itinerating through this section of the country, where vast crowds attended on his ministry. As his influence was great among the people, he was solicited to give his sanction to the expedition in some form ; he, after some hesitation, gave the above mottó (If Christ be captain, no fear of a defeut). A large number of religious men now immediately enlisted.

and conceived the design of taking it by surprise. Ile was one of the most active of the besiegers. Pepperell and Warren, the commanders, each received the title of baronet for their services, while " Vaughan, the originator of the enterprise, and the most gallant spirit of the crusade, remained more than a year in England in the vain expectation of receiving some token of recognition from the sovereign whom he had so signally served, and died a disappointed man.”

After the conquest of Canada, New Hampshire made rapid progress in wealth and population. Relieved from incursions of the Indians upon her frontiers, her settlements were rapidly extended. During the French and Indian wars, numerous bodies of troops passed through the green and fertile country now known as Vermont. Upon the cessation of hostilities, a stream of emigration poured into the country on both sides of the Connecticut River, and in the year 1761, not less than 60 townships were granted on the west, and 18 on the east side of the river. The governor's coffers were filled by the fees. Wentworth, the royal governor of New Hampshire, retained 500 acres in each town to himself. The grants on the west side of the Connecticut alarmed the government of New York, who claimed the land under the grant of the Duke of York. The fees for granting lands were coveted by the governor of that province, and the grasping selfishness of these two royal governors would have soon eventuated in bloodshed, had not the coming troubles of the approaching conflict with the mother country absorbed all other considerations.

Although during the revolutionary period the soil of New Hampshire was not distinguished as the scene of any bloody conflict, yet she furnished her full share of men and means in the struggle elsewhere. On the first outbreak of the revolution, most of the royalists fled from her territory, or were restricted to certain limits. The royal authority having been abolished, a convention assembled at Exeter, and having assumed the name of the House of Representatives, they adopted a constitution, and proceeded to choose twelve persons to constitute a distinct branch of the legislature, by the name of a Council. These twelve were empowered to elect their own president. The president of the council was president of the executive committee. To this responsible station, Meshech Weare was chosen; he was also made judge of the superior court. To these highest offices, legislative, executive and judicial, Mr. Weare continued to be chosen through the stormy period of the revolution, discharging his various duties with fidelity and wisdom. In 1791 a convention was formed to revise the state constitution. This was completed the next year. The title of the chief magistrate was changed from president to governor, but all the main features of the constitution remained unchanged.

New Hampshire is bounded north by Canada East, east by Maine and the Atlantic, south by Massachusetts, and west by Connecticut River, separating it from Vermont. It lies between 42° 40', and 45° 25' N. Lat., and 70° 40', and 72° 35' W. Lon. It is 168 miles long from north to south, and from 20 to 90 wide from east to west. It

contains ninety-five millions of acres, of which about two and a half millions are improved. The whole state may be considered as mountainous, broken and hilly, except a small section in the south-east, toward the sea, and for this reason it is sometimes called the “ Switzerland of America."

The principal rivers in the state are the Connecticut and the Merrimac. The Connecticut rises in the extreme northern part of the state, and forms nearly the whole of its western boundary. The Merrimac rises in the White Mountains, and passes through the middle of the state, into Massachusetts, and furnishes a great amount of water power to the manufacturing towns upon its banks. The White Mountains, in the northern part of the state, attract more tourists than any other natural object in the United States, excepting Niagara Falls. Lake Winnepisseogee, the largest and most picturesque in the state, is about 25 miles long, and from one to ten in width. The northern part of the state is but little cultivated. The hills afford valuable pasturage for cattle and sheep. The best lands are in the valleys of the rivers, which are occasionally overflowed, especially in the valley of the Connecticut. The mountainous portion abounds in granite rocks. The original civilized population of New Hampshire was, with very few exceptions, exclusively of English descent, and the rural districts still remain without much mixture. Population in 1800, 141,899; in 1840, 284,574; in 1850, 317,864; in 1860, 326,175.

PORTSMOUTH is situated on a beautiful peninsula, on the south side of Piscataqua River, about three miles from its mouth, containing an area of 9,702 acres. It is situated 42 miles E. of Concord, 51 S. of Portland, and 54 N. of Boston. Population about 11,000. It is the center of a considerable trade, directed by wealthy and enterprising citizens. Some of the finest ships, both for the mercantile and naval service, have been built here. Manufacturing is extensively carried on. Among the most important corporations are the Portsmouth Steam Factory, for the manufacture of lawns, and the Sagamore Manufacturing Co. Portsmouth has also a large amount invested in railroads, navigation and manufactures in other places. The literary advantages of Portsmouth are highly respectable, having schools conducted on the most approved principles. The Atheneum has a library of about 10,000 volumes.

A great object of interest is the United States Navy Yard at Kittery, on the opposite side of the river. Among other things, it contains three immense ship-houses and a floating balance dock. The North America, the first line-of-battle ship launched in the western hemisphere, was built on Badger's Island, during the revolutionary

The harbor, which lies between the city and mouth of the river, is deep, easy

of

access, and one of the most secure and commodious in the United States. It is naturally protected from the north-east storms, and can be easily rendered inaccessible to enemies. The main entrance to the harbor is on the north-east, between New Castle and ·

war.

Kittery, and it is defended by Forts McClary and Constitution. The other entrance, on the south of New Castle, is called Little Harbor, where the water is shoal, and the bottom sandy. The first settlers of New Hampshire landed at this place in 1623.

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Northern view of Portsmouth, from the Portsmouth Bridge. (The annexed view shows the appearance of Portsmouth, as seen from the long bridge over the Piscata. qua, connecting the states of Maine and New Hampshire. The point of Badger's Island appears on the extreme left, Noble's Island on the right, and in the distance the Portsmouth Steam Factory. The spire of the North Congregational Church is seen in the central part; that of St. John's (Episcopal), and the new public school on the left.)

That part of the town which lies about Church Hill, extending north and south, was originally called Strawberry Bank. The first Episcopal Church was erected previous to the year 1638. In 1732, a new church was erected nearly on the ground where St. John's Church now stands. It was called the Queen's Chapel. The parish was incorporated in 1791, by the name of St. John's Parish. In Dec., 1806, this church was burnt. The present edifice was completed in 1808. The South Congregational Church built their meeting house on the south side of the milldam, in 1657; in 1731, they erected the building commonly called “ Old South.” The Middle Street Baptist Church was organized in 1828. In 1852, their new chapel was erected on State street. The Universalist Church owes its origin to Rev. John Murray, the founder of the Universalists in the United States, in the year 1773. A church was erected for them in Vaughan-st. in 1781. Their present church was erected in 1808. Rev. Jesse Lee appears to have been the first Methodist Episcopal minister who visited Portsmouth. He was a missionary through New England in 1789. The society purchased the house vacated by the Universalists, where they met for 19 years. In 1827, they erected their brick church in State street. The North Church was gathered by Rev. Joshua Moody, in 1671. In 1855, a new church edifice was erected on the spot where two previous churches formerly stood. · The Catholic Church was

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