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caster county. The Lutheran Germans, who, on the other hand, were not averse to fighting when occasion required it, began now to emigrate in greater numbers, settling principally in Berks and Lancaster counties. This diversity of people, languages, civil and religious prejudices, planted the seeds of strife, which agitated the province for more than fifty years, terminating only in the American Revolution.

În 1754, the proprietors at Albany purchased of the Six Nations all the land within the State not previously obtained. The Shawanees, Delawares and Monseys on the Susquehanna, Juniata, Alleghany and Ohio rivers, thus found their lands sold from under their feet, which the Six Nations had guaranteed to them on their removal from the eastern waters. The Indians on the Alleghany at once went over to the French. To allay the dissatisfaction resulting from this purchase, all the lands north and west of the Alleghany Mountains were restored to the Indians, by the treaty at Easton, in 1758. After the defeat of Gen. Braddock, in 1753, the Indians ravaged the whole western frontier of Pennsylvania.

During the French war, Gen. Forbes was charged with an expedition against Fort Duquesne, to be aided by the provincial troops of Pennsylvania and Virginia, under Cols. Washington and Bouquet. To effect their object, a road was cut through the province of Pennsylvania, on the line of the present Chambersburg and Pittsburg Turnpike. Many weeks were consumed in the work; but at length the army, consisting of 7,859 men, penetrated the thick forest, and on reaching the Ohio, found the fort deserted by the French, who had fled down the river, thus abandoning forever their dominion in Pennsylvania.

In the early part of the revolutionary war the people adopted a new constitution, by which the heirs of Penn were excluded from all share of the government; and the quit rents due from the inhabitants were finally discharged, by paying to the representatives of his family the sum of $570,000. The population of Pennsylvania at this time was estimated at over 300,000,

In September, 1777, Pennsylvania became the theater of war. The battle of Brandywine was fought on the 11th of that month, in which the Americans were defeated; and on the 27th, Philadelphia was taken by Sir William Howe. The battle of Germantown, adjoining Philadelphia, fought on the 4th of October, was unfortunate to the Americans. In June, 1778, the it. ish troops evacuated Philadelphia, and marched into New Jersey, and were pursued by the Americans across the state to Monmouth, from whence they sought shelter in New York.

In 1794, the “Whisky Insurrection,” so called, took place in the four western counties, to resist the laws of the United States laying duties on distilled spirits. On the approach of a respectable force, in October, and by the happy union of firmness and lenity on the part of President Washington, the insurgents were induced to lay down their arms and receive pardon. In 1799 the seat of the state government was removed from Philadelphia to Lancaster; and that of the Federal government was removed from Philadel. phia to Washington City. In 1812 the seat of the state government was removed to Harrisburg.

Pennsylvania, from her central position and her natural and improved resources and advantages, is one of the most important states of the Union. It is bounded on the N. by Lake Erie and the state of New York; on the E. by

New Jersey, from which it is separated by the Delaware River; on the S. by Delaware, Maryland and Virginia; on the W. by Virginia and Ohio. It is in length about 310 miles from E. to W., and about 160 in width from N. to S.—its area, 46,000 square miles.

The state presents a great variety of surface. Much of it is undulating and hilly, and in many parts it is mountainous. The Alleghany Mountains cross the state from S. W. to N. E.; and there are many smaller ranges ou each side of the principal ridge, and parallel to it. The Blue Mountain, or Kittatinny, enters the state from New Jersey, and is broken by the Delaware at Water Gap, further west by a pass called Wind Gap, and by the Lehigh, Schuylkill and Susquehanna in the vicinity of Harrisburg. Its elevation varies from 800 to 1,500 feet above the sea level. Westward of the Alleghanies are the Laurel and Chestnut Mountains. The land throughout Pennsylvania is generally of a good quality. The grazing districts furnish large numbers of horses and cattle. Extensive and fertile tracts lie along the margin of the rivers; vast quantities of wheat and other grains are raised, with every species of fruit and vegetables common to the middle states.

The Delaware River is navigable for ships-of-the-line to Philadelphia. The Lehigh, after a course of 75 miles, enters the Delaware at Easton. The Schuylkill, 130 miles long, unites with it 6 miles below Philadelphia. The Susquehanna, a large river which rises in New York, flows S. through the state, and enters the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland; it is much obstructed by falls and rapids. The Juniata rises among the Alleghany Mountains, and after a course of 180 miles, enters the Susquehanna near Harrisburg: The Alleghany River, 400 miles long, from the N., and the Monongahela, 300 miles from the S., unite at Pittsburg, and form the Ohio.

The great mineral product of Pennsylvania is coal. Anthracite coal is mined in the different districts of the vast coal region extending 60 miles north-easterly from the north branch of the Susquehanna, with a breadth of 16 to 18 miles, occupying an area of nearly 1,000 square miles, and, in many places, from 50 to 60 feet in depth. West of the Alleghanies is a still more extensive tract, embracing an area of 21,000 square miles, in which are embedded vast quantities of bituminous coal. Pennsylvania, it is estimated, contains three times as much coal as the whole of the island of Great Britain, and the annual value of her coal trade amounts to many millions of dollars.

Almost every county contains deposits of iron in some form, and the state is said to produce nearly one half of the iron manufactured in the United States. Pennsylvania is the second state in population in the Union, being exceeded only by New York; in 1790 it was the most populous state next to Virginia: its population then was 434,373; in 1820, 1,348,233; in 1840, 1,724,033; in 1850, 2,311,786, and in 1860, 2,913,041.

PHILADELPHIA, the metropolis of Pennsylvania, and the second city in population and manufactures in the union, is in lat. 39° 56' 59"; N. long. from Greenwich 75° 9' 54" W. It is situated between the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, 5 miles above their junction, 93 miles E. by S. from Harrisburg, 87 from New York, 98 from Baltimore, 357 from Pittsburg, and 136 from Washington. The main part of the city is on a plain, the highest point of which is elevated 64 feet above the ordinary high-water mark in the river.

The city is 100 miles from the ocean by the course of the Delaware. Philadelphia has an extensive foreign and still greater domestic trade. By

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means of railroads and canals, it possesses facilities for communication with an immense extent of country. The streets are all straight, cross each other at right angles, are well paved, and kept remarkably clean. The principal streets are Market-street, 100 feet wide, running from E. to W. from river to river, nearly through the center of the city; Broad-street, 113 feet wide, running N. and S., a little west of the middle; Arch, N. of Market-street, 66 feet wide; the others 50 feet. It has an unusual number of beautiful public parks, which are planted with trees and embellished with fountains. The peculiar divisions of Philadelphia were formerly such that its suburbs had a greater population than the city proper, which in 1850 had only 121,376 inhabitants, while the districts of Northern Liberties, Spring Garden, Kensington, Southwark, Moyamensing and West Philadelphia, had more than 224,000. These divisions being consolidated in 1854, the city now includes the whole county. The population of the whole county, including the city, was, in 1790, 54,391; in 1820, 139,027; in 1840, 258,037; in 1860, 568,034.

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The buildings are chiefly of brick, built in a plain and uniform style. Some of the public edifices, of white marble and free-stone, are distinguished for beauty and grandeur. The houses are generally on a uniform plan, three stories high, of brick, with marble steps, and basements. Independence Hall, within which the colonial congress declared the independence of the United States, on the 4th of July, 1776, and which was read from its steps that day to the assembled multitude, now presents nearly the same appearance as then. This building, formerly the state house, fronts on Chesnutstreet, having Independence-square in its rear. It was commenced in 1729, and finished in 1735. In 1774, most of the wood-work of the old steeple was taken down, being much decayed, leaving only a small belfry to cover the town clock. The bell for this steeple was imported from England in 1752, but was cracked on its first ringing; a new one was cast in Philadelphia, under the direction of Isaac Norris, at that time speaker of the colonial assembly, who, it is stated, caused this passage, from Lev. xxv, 10, to be placed upon it, which proved prophetic of its future use: “Proclaim LIBERTY throughout the land, unto all the inhabitants thereof." This was nearly a quarter of a century before independence was declared; yet, when the declaration was

signed, this identical bell was the first by its merry peal to "proclaim Lib. erty throughout the land." The room in which the declaration was signed, still presents its ancient appearance. Within this edifice was held the con


Eastern view of the MerchantsExchange, Philadelphia. The Merchants' Exchange is built of white marble, and is a beautiful specimen of architecture. Tho semi-circular colonnade, shown in the view, of eight noble pillars of pure white marble, presents a magnificent aspect as seen on approaching the building from the east. The Philadelphia postoffice is in the basement, and the great hall of the Exchange above, comprising the semi-rotunda, with a part of the main building. vention which formed the constitution of the United States, some of the first sessions of congress, and here Washington delivered his “ Farewell Address.”

The custom house, formerly the United States Bank, on Chesnut-street, is a splendid marble edifice, in imitation of the Parthenon at Athens. It was completed in 1824, at the expense of half a million of dollars. The Merchants' Exchange is an elegant building of white marble; in the basement is the postoffice. The United States Navy-yard, in the south part of the city, occupies an area of 12 acres, and is supplied with all the modern appointments for ship-building; attached to it, is a sectional dry-dock. The United States Mint is a fine edifice of brick. The United States Naval Asylum, established in 1835, occupies a beautiful site near the Schuylkill River, in Moyamensing district. Fort Mifflin, on a small island, in the Delaware, 1} miles below the Schuylkill, defends the city. The United States Arsenal, near Frankford, is an immense establishment, used for the storage and manufacture of the munitions of war.

The city contains 225 churches, many of them fine specimens of architecture. The benevolent and charitable institutions are very numerous. One of the oldest and most respectable is the Pennsylvania Hospital, founded in 1751. The Insane Asylum, a branch of the hospital, is about two miles west from the Schuylkill. The Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind, also the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, are within the city. Among the literary institutions, the University of Pennsylvania is one of the oldest and most considerable. The public schools are numerous: at the head of these stands the high school. There is, also, a normal school, having a principal and 10 professors. In all, there are about 200 schools, furnishing the means of a good common education to over 70,000 scholars. The Girard College for Orphans, endowed by the late Stephen Girard with two millions of dollars, was commenced July 4, 1833. It consists of a great central temple, with two buildings on each side of it for teachers and pupils. The grounds contain about 41 acres, surrounded by a wall 10 feet high.

Philadelphia is distinguished as the medical metropolis of the Union. Of medical colleges, it contains the first established in the United States, which, with the other numerous institutions, are by far the most flourishing and important in the Union. The number of medical works and journals here published, is probably equal to the combined number in all the other cities of the country.

The libraries of the various medical colleges, are large and very valuable, as also are their anatomical museums and cabinets: very great advantages are afforded for clinical instruction, by the various hospitals, dispensaries, etc. Nearly all the various medical institutions in the city, have large and commodious edifices. The total number of students attending the different medical colleges, is usually about 1,400.

Among the scientific and literary institutions, is the American Philosophical Society, the oldest scientific association in the United States, being originated principally by Dr. Franklin, in 1743. It has a very large and valuable library: an extensive cabinet of medals, engravings, maps, etc. Its published transactions are widely appreciated. The Philadelphia Library Company, instituted in 1731, principally by Dr. Franklin, has one of the most extensive libraries in this country. In 1792, it received the valuable library of Hon. James Logan, now amounting to 10,000 volumes. These li·braries united, comprise about 80,000 volumes, and are constantly increasing. The Atheneum organized in 1814; the Mercantile Library established in 1821; the Apprentices' Library, founded in 1819, all have extensive libraries. There are also several associations, institutes, colleges, etc., in different parts of the city, having considerable libraries, making a total of 271,081

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