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Bennet Riley, brevet major general in the U. S. army, was born in St. Mary's county, in 1786, and entered the army at an early age. In the Florida war he gained reputation at the battle of Chockachatta. He distinguished himself in the Mexican war, particularly at rro Gordo and Contreras. In 1849 and 1850, he had command of the military department of Upper California. He died in 1852, aged 66 years.

Samuel Ringgold, a major in the U. S. army, was born about the year 1796. He was the eldest son of Gen. Samuel Ringgold, of Washington county, Md.; and his mother was a daughter of Gen. John Cadwallader, of Philadelphia, a sterling officer of the revolution. He was educated at West Point, and was the aid to Gen. Scott, in Florida. He organized the corps of flying artillery of the U. S. army, and paid great attention to the discipline of the soldiers in this branch of the service. This, together with his high character as a gentleman, gave him promi. nence in the country, so that his death at Palo Alto, the opening battle of the Mexican war, May 8, 1846, created a profound impression on the public mind.

John Rodgers, commander in the U. S. Navy, was born in Harford county, Md., in 1771. He served with credit in the war with the Barbary powers, and in that of 1812. He successively refused the office of secretary of the navy from Madison and Monroe. For about 20 years he was president of the board of Navy commissioners. He died in 1838, in his 67th year.

Joshua Barney, a distinguished naval commander, was born in Baltimore, in 1759, and early went to sea. He entered the naval service at the beginning of the revolution, and after a variety of adventures, in which he was taken prisoner three times, he was, in 1782, placed in command of the Hyder Ally, of 16 guns, with which vessel he took the British ship General Monk, in an action of 26 minntes. Shortly after, he sailed to France with dispatches for Dr. Franklin, and brought back the French loan in chests of gold and barrels of silver. When, in the war of 1812, the British invaded Washington, he made a gallant stand with his marines, at Bladensburg. He died in 1818, at the age of 59 years, having been in service 41 years, fought 26 battles and one duel.

Jesse Duncan Elliott, a commodore in the U. S. Navy, was born in Maryland, in 1785, educated at Carlisle, Pa., and subsequently entered the navy. For a gallant exploit performed on Lake Erie, Oct. 8, 1812, congress presented him with a sword. His conduct in Perry's victory on Lake Erie, gained him the commendation of his superior officer. He remained in the navy until the period of his death, in 1815.

Charles G. Ridgely, a commodore in the U. S. Navy, was born in Baltimore, in 1784, and entered the navy as midshipman, at 15 years of age. For his gallant conduct in the Tripolitan war, he received a gold medal from congress. He died in 1848, having been in service 48 years.

Louis M Lane, eminent as a statesman, was born in Smyrna, Del., in 1786. From 1798 to 1801, was a midshipman under Decatur, when he left the navy studied law, and for many years represented Delaware in both houses of Congress. In 1829, he was appointed by President Jackson minister to the court of St. James. He was afterward secretary of the U. S. treasury, and also secretary of state. Retiring from public life in 1834, he was, in 1837, elected president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Co. During the pendency of the Oregon negotiations, he was appointed minister to Great Britain, by President Polk, and after a long and useful career, died Oct. 7, 1857, in his 72d year.



The District of Columbia — the seat of the government of the United States—occupies a space of 60 square miles, or 38,400 acres, about half of which is improved; it is situated on the left or northern bank of the Potomac, about one hundred and twenty miles from its entrance into Chesapeake Bay. The territory was formerly 10 miles square, and was ceded by the states of Maryland and Virginia for the use of the federal government. The act of congress locating the capitol of the United States at Washington, was dated 16th of July, 1790. This was done at the suggestion of Gen. Washington. It was, however, provided that the seat of government should not be removed until 1800, in order that buildings might be appointed for congress and the executive departments. The corner-stone of the district was laid on the 15th of April, 1791, and that of the capitol, by Gen. Washington, on the 18th of Sept., 1795. The design was planned, and the streets laid out, by Maj. L'Enfant and Mr. Ellicott. The seat of government was removed from Philadelphia to Washington in 1800. That part of the Dis. trict granted by Virginia, and in which the city of Alexandria is situated, was retroceded back to Virginia in 1846. The District of Columbia now comprises the territory ceded by Maryland in 1788, and contains the cities of Washington and Georgetown, and is under the immediate jurisdiction of congress. Population in 1850, 51,687, of whom 9,970 were free colored, and 3,687 slaves.

WASHINGTON, the capital of the United States of America, is situated on the left or northern bank of the Potomac, distant from Baltimore 38 miles, 136 from Philadelphia, New York 226, Boston 432, Cincinnati 497, Chicago 763, St. Louis 856, Pittsburg 228, San Francisco (in a direct line) about 2,000, Richmond 122, Wilmington (N. C.) 416, Charleston 544, Mobile 1,033, Nashville 714, Louisville 590, and New Orleans 1,203 miles. The Obseryatory lies in 38° 53' 32" N. lat., and 77° 3' W. long. from Greenwich; it is itself a meridian, and many American maps have their longitude reckoned from this city. The population in 1800 was 3,210; in 1820, 13,247; in 1840, 23,364; in 1860, 61,400.

The city is laid out on a magnificent plan, including 5,000 acres, sufficient to accommodate a million of inhabitants. The extent of this plan has sometimes caused Washington to be termed a city of “magnificent distances," and the city as a whole has somewhat of a scattered appearance.

Fine ranges

of hills are situated in the vicinity, and are covered in part with trees and shrubbery, presenting verdant and cultivated slopes. În planning the city the most advantageous sites were appropriated for the different edifices. The ground on which Washington stands has a general elevation of about 40 feet

above the level of the river, with some points still higher. The streets run north and south, east and west: across which, in a diagonal direction, are a series of broad avenues, designed to facilitate communication with each part of the city-five of them radiating from the capitol, and five others from the President's house. The avenues and principal streets are from 130 to 160 feet wide, and the points at which they meet are selected as sites for public buildings. The avenues are named from the principal states. Pennsylvania avenue, extending about a mile from the capitol to the President's house, is the most compactly built, and forms the principal thoroughfare.


Capitol of the United States, from Pennsylvania-avenue. The CAPITOL is a large, massive edifice, of the Corinthian order, and is built of free-stone. The original design of the building was made by Dr. Wm. Thornton, and modified by C. Bulfinch and M. Latrobe; the cornerstone was laid by Washington, in 1795. It was first occupied in 1800: the northern wing then being only completed, at a cost of $480,000. In 1814, after the completion of the southern wing---which cost $308,000—but before the erection of the porticos, during the British occupation of Washington, the building was set on fire, and the roofs and the interior burnt. The wings were repaired and occupied in 1819. The center building was completed in 1827, costing about $1,000,000. A new dome has been recently constructed

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