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but without success; when they came to the three branches, the greater number took the road to Montgomery Courthouse, as the place of the greatest safety.
Colonel Kramer, stationed on the right of the road, and in advance of Commodore Barney, was next driven from his post and retreated upon the troops of Colonels Beall and Hood, posted on an eminence on the right. After this movement, the British columns in the road were exposed to an animated fire from Major Pe. ter's artillery, which continued until they came in contact with Commodore Barney. Here they sustained the heaviest loss. When they came in full view, and in solid column upon the main road, he opened upon them an eighteen pounder, which completely cleared the road. They made several attempts to rally and advance, but were as often repelled. This induced them to flank off to the right of the American lines to an open field. Here Captain Miller opened upon them with three twelve pounders with great effect. The British continued flanking to the right and pressed upon Colonels Beall and Hood's command. These troops, after firing three or four rounds at such distance as to produce no effect, broke and fled. This exposed the artillery of Barney and Miller to the whole British force, who soon gained their rear. Both these officers were severely wounded.
Commodore Barney taken. Commodore Barney ordered a retreat, but the British being in his rear, he was made prisoner. As he lay wounded by the side of the fence, he beckoned to a British soldier, and directed him to call an officer. General Ross immediately rode up, and, on being informed of his character and situation, ordered his wounds to be dressed and paroled him. The second line was not entirely connected, but posted in advantageous positions in connection with and supporting each other. The command of General Smith, including the Georgetown and city militia, and the regulars under Colonel Scott, and some other corps, still remained unbroken.
The British light troops, in the meantime advancing on the left of the road, had gained a line parallel with Smith's command, and were endeavoring to turn his Aank. Col. Brent was placed in a situation calculated to prevent this movement. The British continued their march, and came within long shot of Magruder's command, who opened a partial fire upon them. At this moment the whole of the troops were ordered to fall back; after retreating about one hundred rods, they were halted and formed by their officers, when they were again ordered to retreat and form on the hights west of the Turnpike Gate, and half a mile in front of the capital. Here Colonel Minor, with his regiment of Virginia militia, having spent the day in the city, endeavoring to get access to the arsenal for supplies for his troops, came up and joined General Smith. While in the act of forming upon these hights, General Winder arrived and ordered the troops to retire to the capital, in expectation of there uniting with the first line; but these troops, excepting one company of Colonel Laval's cavalry, were not to be found on Capitol Hill
. City evacuated. A conference was immediately held between General Winder and the Secretaries of State and War, that it would be impossible, in the existing state of things, to make effectual resistance against the invasion of the city, or de fend the capital; the whole force was then ordered to quit the city and retreat through Georgetown to a place of safety. On receiving this order, the troops then remaining manifested the deepest regret. They consisted principally of the Georgetown and city militia, who had not had an opportunity of signalizing themselves in defense of their fire-sides; to leave them without a struggle, an unresisting prey to the enemy, was more than they could endure. That order which they had heretofore observed was entirely destroyed; some went home, some went in pursuit of refreshments, and those that remained in a body gave themselves up to those feelings which fatigue, exhaustion and disappointment produced. An attempt was made to rally the troops at Tenleytown, but with little success. The few that were collected marched five miles up the Potomac; and early in the morning of the 25th orders were given for the assembling the troops at Montgomery Court-house, and on the 26th General Winder, with the troops there assembled, took up their line of march for Baltimore.
The President and heads of departments, after their narrow escape at Bladensburgh, concluded to leave the remaining events of the day to the direction of General Winder, and returned to the city. Judging that the American officers, on
their return from the field of battle, would need refreshments, the President had ordered an elegant entertainment prepared for them at his house. As soon as it was determined that the city was not to be defended, the Cabinet retired to Montgomery Court-house.
In the meantime, the British advanced from Bladensburgh without further oppo sition; and at eight o'clock in the evening General Ross entered the city at the head of eight hundred men. Having arrived on Capitol Hill, he offered terms of capitulation, which were, that the city might be ransomed for a sum of money nearly equal to the value of the public and private property it contained; and that on receiving it the troops should retire to their ships unmolested.
There being neither civil nor military authorities in the city to whom the prop ositions could be made, the work of conflagration commenced. The Capitol, the President's house, the offices of the Treasury, War and Navy departments, and their furniture, with several private buildings, were destroyed. The party sent to burn the President's house entered it and found in readiness the entertainment which had been crdered for the American officers. In the dining hall the table was spread for forty guests, the sideboard furnished with the richest liquors, and in the kitchen the dishes all prepared. These uninvited guests devoured the feast with little ceremony, ungratefully set fire to the building where they had been so liberally fed, and returned to their comrades. One house from which General Ross apprehended himself to have been shot at was burned, and all the people found in it slain. The most important public papers had been previously removed. The Navy-yard, with its contents and apparatus, one frigate of the largest class on the stocks, and nearly ready to launch, and several smaller vessels, were destroyed by Commodore Tingey, under the direction of the Secretary of the Navy, after the capture of the city:
The British having aocomplished the object of their visit, left the city on the 25th and passed through Bladenshurgh at midnight, on the route to Benediet
. They left their dead unburied; such of their wounded as could ride were placed on horseback; others in carts and wagons, and upward of ninety left behind. The wounded British prisoners were entrusted to the humanity of Commodore Barney, who provided everything for their comfort; and such as recovered were exchanged and returned to the British. Two hundred pieces of artillery at the Arsenal and Navy-yard fell into their hands, which they were unable to remove; these they spiked, knocked off the trunnions and left. Their retreat, though un. molested, was precipitate, and conducted under evident apprehensions of an attack. They reached Benedict on the 29th, and embarked on the 30th."
The loss of the public property destroyed by the British exceeded one million of dollars. Twenty Americans were killed and forty wounded. The British loss, from the time of their landing to their embarkation, was estimated at one hundred and eighty killed and one hundred and fifty wounded.
The Washington Congressional Cemetery is about one mile and a half from the capitol. It embraces an area of about ten acres, situated in the eastern
section of Washington, near the eastern branch of the Potomac. It is laid out with trees and shrubbery. Every member of congress who dies while a member, has a monument erected to his memory, inscribed with his name, the state from whence he came, the time of his death, etc. These monuments are all of sandstone, painted white, precisely of one fashion, and of a form perhaps the best
that can be devised for durability. At FORM OF THE CONGRESSIONAL MONUMENTS.
present there are about 130 in the inclosure, some 50 of which are in the north-east corner of the ground, the re
mainder in the southern part. The cemetery was commenced in 1807, and about 6,000 persons have been here interred. The following inscriptions are copied from monuments within it:
To the memory of George Clinton. He was born in the state of New York, on the 26th of July, 1739, and died at the City of Washington, on the 20th April, 1811, in the 73d year of his age.
He was a soldier and statesman of the revolution. Eminent in council, distinguished in war, he filled with unexampled usefulness, purity and ability, among many other high offices, those of governor of his native state, and vice-president of the United States. While he lived, his virtue, wisdom and valor, were the pride, the ornament and security of his country; and when he died, he left an illustrious example of a well-spent life, worthy of all imitation.
PUSH-MA-TA-HA, a Choctaw chief, lies here. This monument to his memory is erected by his brother chiefs, who were associated with him in a delegation from their nation, in the year 1824, to the general government of the United States. He died in Washington, on the 24th of December, 1824, of the croup, in the 60th year of his age. Push-ma-ta-ha was a warrior of great distinction. He was wise in council, eloquent in an extraordinary degree, and on all occasions, and under all circumstances, the white man's friend. Among his last words were the following: “When I am gone let the big guns be fired over me."
Sacred to the memory of Maj. Gen. Jacob Brown. By birth, by education, by principle, devoted to Peace. In defense of his country, and in vindication of her Rights, & WARRIOR. To her he dedicated his life. Wounds received in her cause, abridged his days. his services are attested by the fields of CHIPPEWA, NIAGARA, Erik. In peace by the improved organization and discipline of the army. In both by the thanks of the Nation, and å golden medal by the bands of the chief magistrate, and by this marble, erected to honor him at the command of the congress of the United States. He was born in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, on the 9th of May, 1775, and died at the City of Washington, commanding General of the army, on the 24th Feb., 1828.
Let him whoe'er in after days
ALEXANDER Macomb, Major General commanding-in-chief of the United States Army, died at Washington, the seat of government, 25 June, 1841. “It were but a small tribute to say that in youth and manhood he served his country in the profession in which he died, during a period of more than forty years, without a stain or blemish upon his escutcheon. [General orders War Department.] The honors conferred on him by President Madison, received on the field of victory for distinguished and gallant conduct in defeating the enemy at Plattsburg, and the thanks of congress bestowed with a medal commemorative of this triumph of the Arms of the Republic, attest the high estimate of his gallantry and meritorious services." (General orders War Department.]
ABEL PARKER UPSHER, born in Northampton county, Virg., Juno 17th, 1790. Appointed Judge of the General Court of Virginia, Dec. 15th, 1826; Secretary of the Navy, Sept. 13th, 1841 ; Secretary of State, July 24th, 1843. Died Feb. 28th, 1844.
Beverly Kennox, Captain in the United States Navy, and Chief of the Bereau of Con- . struction and Equipment, born in Meckler burgh county, Vir., April 7th, 1795. Entered the Naval service May 18th, 1809, died Feb. 28th, 1844. The lamented who lie together beneath this stone were united by the ties of Friendship, which commenced in youth and experienced no interruption until the awful moment when the lives of both were terminated by the explosion of the great gun of the Princeton frigate. “United in life, in death they are not divided."
The eccentric Lorenzo Dow lies buried in the old graveyard north of the l'resident's mansion. His monument is a plain slab of red free-stone, and has upon it the following inscription :
The Repository of LORENZO Dow, who was born in Coventry, Connecticut, Oct. 15, 1777. Died Feb., 1834, aged 56.
“A Christian is the highest style of man."
Georgetown is situated on the north-east bank of the Potomac, 2 miles from Washington, from which it is separated by Rock River, over which are two bridges. The situation is pleasant: commanding a fine view of the Potomac River, and the City of Washington. The lofty eminences that over. look the town from the north and west, are known as the Hights of George
Along these elevations, gentlemen of wealth, and those holding high official stations, have built their dwellings, with beautiful gardens and grounds attached. The city was formerly of much commercial importance, and is now a thriving and busy place. It is connected by the Ohio and Chesapeake Canal with the Cumberland coal region, and with the West Indies and the
Aqueduct and Catholic College, Georgetown. commercial ports in the United States by lines of packets. The flour er. ported from this place has a high reputation. Georgetown was originally said out by an act of the colonial legislature in Maryland, in 1751. In 1789 the town was incorporated. The city contains about 12,000 inhabitants.
The Aqueduct over the Potomac is a stupendous work, constructed by Maj. Trumbuls, of the topographical engineers, and cost nearly $2,000,000. It has nine piers, whose foundations, which are of granite, are no less than thirtysix feet under water, and rise above the river about forty feet. Georgetown College is situated on the hights, rising immediately from the aqueduct in the western part of Georgetown. This is a Catholic institution; its first building was constructed in 1789, and in 1815 congress raised it to the rank of a university. The Academy of the Visitation was founded in 1799. The ladies who are entrusted with the direction and care of the studies, are members of the religious order founded in 1610, by St. Frances de Sales. The Female Seminary, founded by Miss Lydia English, has long enjoyed a high reputation. The Georgetown Cemetery is located on a beautiful spot, shaded by forest-trees, on Rock creek. It was laid out under the direction and expense of W. W. Corcoran, the celebrated banker.
VIRGINIA is distinguished as the largest and the earliest settled of the original thirteen States. In 1584, Queen Elizabeth of England granted to
Sir Walter Raleigh a patent, giving him authority to discover, occupy and govern “remote, heathen and barbarous countries” not previously possessed by any Christian prince or people. Under this commission, Amidas and Barlow, with two ships, arrived in America in July, 1584. They landed at Roanoke, now within the limits of North Carolina, and took possession of the country for the Crown of England, and named it Virginia, in honor of the virgin queen of England. The next year one hundred and seven adventurers, under Sir Richard Gren
ville, sailed to America, and fixed their ARMS OF VIRGINIA.
residence on Roanoke Island, and were Motto Sic Semper Tyrannis—Thus may it ever bo
placed under the command of Mr. with Tyrants.
Lane. These persons, rambling into
the wilderness, without due caution, or provoking the Indians by their lawless conduct, were attacked by them, so that many were cut off, while others perished from want. The survivors were taken to England the following year by Sir Francis Drake, after his expedition to St. Augustine. In 1587, an expedition was made under Mr. White, with three ships, when 115 persons were left at Roanoke. It was three years before any supplies were sent to the colony, and when Governor White arrived in 1590, no Englishmen were to be found, and it was evident that they had perished with hunger or had been slain by the savages. The last adventurers, therefore, returned, and all further attempts to settle Virginia were postponed
The first grant from the crown of England under which permanent settlements were made in Virginia and New England was dated April 10, 1606. By this charter, King James assigned all the lands between 34 and 45 degrees of latitude, all of which was then called Virginia. By this instrument two companies were formed; one, called the London company, had assigned to it all the lands between 34 and 41 degrees of latitude, extending inland 39