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are far too precipitous. A hot and brilliant day is, of all others, the time to enjoy this object. To escape from a sun which scorches you into these verdant and cool bottoms is a luxury of itself, which disposes you to relish everything else. When
down, I was very careful of the first impression, and did not venture to look steadily on the objects about me till I had selected my station. At length I placed myself about one hundred feet from the bridge, on some masses of rock which were washed by the running waters, and ornamented by the slender trees which were
springing from its fissures. At my feet was the soothing melody of the rippling, gushing waters. Behind me, and in the distance, the river and the hills were expanding themselves to the light and splendor of day. Before me, and all around, everything was reposing in the most delightful shade, set off by the streaming rays of the sun, which shot
across the head of the picture far above you, and sweetened the solitude below. On the right and left the majestic rocks arose, with the decision of a wall, but without its uniformity, massive, broken, beautiful, and supplying a most admirable foreground; and everywhere the most delicate stems were planted in their crevices, and waving their heads in the soft breeze which occasionally came over them. The eye now ran through the bridge, and was gratified with a lovely vista. The blue mountains stood out in the background; beneath them, the hills and woods gathered together, so as to enclose the dell below, while the river, which was coursing away from them, seemed to have its well-head hidden in their recesses. Then there is the arch, distinct from everything, and above everything! Massive as it is, it is light and beautiful by its hight, and the fine trees on its summit seem now only like a garland of evergreens; and, elevated as it is, its apparent elevation is wonderfully increased by the narrowness of its piers, and by its outline being drawn on the blue sky which appears beneath and above it! 01 it is sublime--so strong and yet so elegant-springing from earth, and bathing its head in heaven! But it is the sublime not allied to the terrific, as at Niagara; it is the sublime associated with the pleasing. I sat and gazed in wonder and astonishment. That afternoon was the shortest I ever remembered. I had quickly, too quickly, to leave the spot forever, but the music of those waters, the luxury of those shades, the form and colors of those rocks, and that arch—that arch -rising over all, and seeming to offer a passage to the skies_01 they will never leave me!
The Peaks of Otter are 35 miles south-westerly from Lynchburg. They are two exquisitely beautiful conical peaks in the Blue Ridge, some two miles apart, and rising to the hight of more than a mile above the level of the sea. From the summits, on one hand the eye has uninterrupted range as far as vision can extend over the comparatively level country of eastern Virginia ; on the other are mountains piled on mountains, until blue of mountain and blue of sky mingle in the far distance in one undistinguishable tint.
The Natural Tunnel, another of the many natural curiosities of Virginia, is in Scott county, in the south-western part of the state, near the line of Ten
It is a winding passage through a mountain of 450 feet in length and in places 90 feet in hight. A stream of water flows through it and a stage road over it.
The White Sulphur Springs of Greenbrier, the most celebrated of all the watering places of Virginia, are 9 miles easterly from Lewisburg, about 170 from the Ohio River at Point Pleasant, 242 south-west of Washington City, and 205 west of Richmond. Its situation is in a charming valley, environed by mountains. Fifty acres, perhaps, are occupied with lawns and walks, and the cabins and cottages of the guests, built in rows around the public apartments, the dining-room, the ball-room, etc., give the place quite a merry, happy village air. There is Alabama-row, Louisiana, Paradise, Baltimore and Virginia rows, Georgia, Wolf and Bachelor rows, Broadway, the Colonnade, Virginia lawn, the Spring, and other specialities. The cottages are built of wood, brick and of logs, one story high; and, altogether, the social arrangement and spirit here, as at all the surrounding springs, has a pleasant, quiet, home sentiment, very much more desirable than the metropolitan temper of more accessible and more thronged resorts.
The Blue Sulphur Springs are 22 miles from the White Sulphur, in a valley surrounded by mountains on three sides, presenting wild and picturesque scenery. The water is similar to that of the White Sulphur.
The Sweet Springs are 17 miles east from the White Sulphur, in a wide and beautiful valley among the mountains. Their temperature is 73° Fahrenheit. They are celebrated for the tonic power of their waters, whether used externally or internally. About a mile north of the Sweet Springs is the Rcd • Spring of the Alleghany, said to be peculiarly efficacious in rheumatio complaints.
The Salt Sulphur Springs are in Monroe county, 24 miles distant from the White Sulphur. This pleasant watering place is surrounded by mountains on every side. The Red Sulphur Springs are situated on Indian creek, 40 miles from the White Sulphur and 16 from the Salt Sulphur.
The Augusta Springs are 12 miles north-west of Staunton. The water is strongly impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen, and is said to equal the celebrated springs of Harrowgate, England. The Alum Springs are in Rockbridge county, 17 miles west of Lexington, on the road to the warm and hot springs of Bath county. The Botetourt Springs are in Roanoke county, 12 miles from Fincastle. The Fauquier White Sulphur Springs are 6 miles south-west from Warrenton, in Fauquier county. The Grayson Sulphur Springs are in Carrol county, on the west side of the Blue Ridge, about 20 miles south of Wytheville. Its waters are said to be efficacious in dyspepsia and rheumatism. The Shannondale Sprinys are upon the Shenandoah River, in the vicinity of Harper's Ferry, near the Blue Ridge, and are easier of access from the northern Atlantic cities than any others in Virginia. The scenery of the place is very beautiful. The waters closely resemble those of the celebrated Bedford waters in composition, operation and efficacy.
Wheeling is on the east bank of Ohio River, and on both sides of Wheeling creek, 351 miles from Richmond, 56 miles from Pittsburg, and 365 above Cincinnati
. The hills back of the city come near the river, so as to leave but a limited area for building, so that the place is forced to extend along the high alluvial bank for two miles. A fine stone bridge over Wheeling creek connects the upper and lower portions of the city. Wheeling is the most important place on the Ohio River between Cincinnati and Pittsburg. It is surrounded by bold hills containing inexhaustible quantities of bituminous coal, from which the numerous manufacturing establishments are supplied at a small expense. The place contains several iron foundries, cotton mills, and factories of various kinds. A large business is done in the building of steamboats. Population about 12,000.
The National Road, from Cumberland across the Alleghany Mountains to St. Louis, passes through Wheeling, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad terminates here, making this place a great thoroughfare of travel between the east and west. The Ohio River is crossed here by a magnificent wire suspension bridge, erected at a cost of upward of $200,000. Its span, one of the longest in the world, measures 1,010 feet. The hight of the towers is 153 feet above low water mark, and 60 above the abutments. The entire bridge is supported by 12 wire cables, 1,380 feet in length and 4 inches in diameter, each composed of 550 strands. These cables are laid in pairs, 3 pairs on each side of the flooring.
In 1769 Col. Ebenezer Zane, his brothers Silas and Jonathan, with some others from the south branch of the Potomac, visited the Ohio for the purpose of making improvements, and severally proceeded to select positions for their future residence. They chose for their residence the site now occupied by the city of Wheeling, and having made the requisite preparations returned to their former homes, and brought out their families the ensuing
year. The Zanes were men of enterprise, tempered with prudence, and directed by sound judgment. To the bravery and good conduct of these three brothers, the Wheeling settlement was mainly indebted for its security and preservation during the war of the revolution. Soon after the settlement of this place other settlements were made at different points, both above and below Wheeling, in the country on Buffalo, Short and Grave creeks.
The name of Wheeling was originally Weeling, which in the Delaware language signifies the place of a head. At a very early day, some whites descending the Ohio in a boat, stopped at the mouth of the creek and were mur. dered by Indians. The savages cut off the head of one of their victims, and placing it on a pole with its face toward the river, called the spot Weeling.
The view shows the appearance of Wheeling as it is entered upon the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The steamboat landing and part of the city are seen in the central part. The suspension bridge crossing over to Wheeling Island on the left. Part of the railroad depot is on the right.
The most important event in the history of Wheeling was the siege of Fort Henry, at the mouth of Wheeling creek, in September, 1777. The fort was originally called Fort Fincastle, and was a place of refuge for the settlers in Dunmore's war. The name was afterward changed to Henry, in honor of Patrick Henry. The Indians who besieged the fort were estimated at from 380 to 500 warriors, led on by the notorious Simon Girty. The garrison numbered only 42 fighting men, under the command of Col. Shepherd. The savages made several attempts to force themselves into the fort; they were driven back by the unerring rifle shots of the brave little garrison. A reinforcement of about 50 men having got into the fort, the Indians raised the siege, having lost from 60 to 100 men. The loss of the garrison was 26 killed, all of whom, excepting three or four, fell in an ambuscade outside the
walls before the attack on the fort commenced. The heroism of Elizabeth Zane during the siege is worthy of record. This heroine had but recently returned from school at Philadelphia, and was totally unused to such scenes as were daily transpiring on the frontier:
“The stock of gunpowder in the fort having been nearly exhausted, it was determined to seize the favorable opportunity offered by the suspension of hostilities to send for a keg of gunpowder which was known to be in the house of Ebenezer Zane, about sixty yards from the gate of the fort. The person executing this service would necessarily expose himself to the danger of being shot down by the Indians, who were yet sufficiently near to observe everything that transpired about the works. The colonel explained the matter to his men, and, unwilling to order one of them to undertake such a desperate enterprise, inquired whether any man would volunteer for the service. Three or four young men promptly stepped forward in obedience to the call. The colonel informed them that the weak state of the garrison would not justify the absence of more than one man, and that it was for themselves to decide who that person should be. The eagerness felt by each volunteer to undertake the honorable mission prevented them from making the arrangement proposed by the commandant; and so much time was consumed in the contention between them that fears began to arise that the Indians would renew the attack before the powder could be procured. At this crisis, a young lady, the sister of Ebenezer and Silas Zane, came forward and desired that she might be permitted to execute the service. This proposition seemed so extravagant that it met with a peremptory refusal; but she instantly renewed her petition in terms of redoubled earnestness, and all the remonstrances of the colonel and her relatives failed to dissuade her from her heroic purpose. It was finally represented to her that either of the young men, on account of his superior fleetness and familiarity with scenes of danger, would be more likely than herself to do the work successfully. She replied that the danger which would attend the enterprise was the identical reason that induced her to offer her services, for, as the garrison was very weak, no soldier's life should be placed in needless jeopardy, and that if she were to fall her loss would not be felt. Her petition was ultimately granted, and the gate opened for her to pass out. The opening of the gate arrested the attention of several Indians who were straggling through the village. It was noticed that their eyes were upon her as she crossed the open space to reach her brother's house; but seized, perhaps, with a sudden freak of clemency, or believing that a woman's life was not worth a load of gunpowder, or influenced by some other unexplained motive, they permitted her to pass without molestation. When she reappeared with the powder in her arms the Indians, suspecting, no doubt, the character of her burden, elevated their firelocks and discharged a volley at her as she swiftly glided toward the gate, but the balls all flew wide of the mark, and the fearless girl reached the fort in safety with her prize. The pages of history may furnish a parallel to the noble exploit of Elizabeth Zane, but an instance of greater selfdevotion and moral intrepidity is not to be found anywhere."
Parkersburg is a thriving town of about 4,500 inhabitants, at the junction of the Little Kanawha with the Ohio, 100 miles below Wheeling. It has a connection with the west by the Cincinnati and Marietta railroad, and with the east by the North-western railroad, a branch of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad.
Martinsburg is a flourishing town on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, 180 miles north from Richmond, and has about 3,000 inhabitants.
Moundsville is a small village on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 11 miles below Wheeling. On the river flats at this place, in full view of the passing steamers, is the Mammoth Mound, 69 feet in hight. Some years since a white oak, about 70 feet in hight, stood on its summit, which appeared to die of age. On carefully cutting the trunk transversely, the number of concentric circles showed that it was about 500 years old. In