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Athens is a flourishing town in Clarke county, on the west side of Oconee River, 64 miles N. W. of Milledgeville and 92 W. N. W. of Augusta. Population about 5,000. It is situated at the terminus of the Athens Branch Railroad, in a healthy region of country. Since the construction of the rail. road the town has increased rapidly, and has become the market for an extensive cotton-growing region. There are several cotton factories in Athens and its immediate vicinity which add much to the business of the place.
The Franklin College was incorporated in 1788 as the University of Georgia. It was established at Athens in 1802, and its original endowment was 30,000 acres of land. It languished for want of funds until 1816, when the lands were sold, and the proceeds, amounting to $100,000, were invested in productive stocks. The college has forty-four acres of ground on which the buildings are erected, which were set apart for their use by the legislature. The philosophical apparatus is very extensive, the chemical laboratory is ample, and the cabinet of minerals large. The library contains upward of 8,000 volumes. Mr. Josiah Meigs, a professor in Yale College, Conn., was the first president; he was succeeded by Dr. Brown, of Columbia College, of S. C. Dr. Brown resigned in 1816, and was succeeded by Dr. Finley, of New Jersey, who in turn was succeeded by Dr. Waddell, and in 1829 by Dr. Church, of Vermont.
South-eastern view of Athens. The above engraving shows a south-eastern view of the place as it is approached from the terminus of the railroad. The new bridge over the Oconee, somewhat novel in its construction, is seen in the foreground. It was completed Dec., 1856. The rocky road going up to the central part of the town is shown beyond on the right. The College or University buildings are situated on the elevated ground seen on the left.
Atlanta is an exceedingly flourishing town, a great railroad center, situated at the point of connection of the Western and Atlantic, the Macon and Western, and Georgia railroads, 101 miles N. W. from Macon, 171 W. of Augusta and 291 from Nashville. Its site is elevated and healthy, and it is a place of great activity in business. It was laid out in 1845, and 1847 it was incorpo. rated as a city. Population about 12,000.
The famous Rock or Stone Mountain, a place of great resort, is near the line of the Georgia Railway, 15 miles east of Atlanta. The mountain stands alone in a comparatively level region, and covers 1,000 acres. Its circumference is about six miles, and its hight above the sea 2,230 feet. On its summit is an observatory for the use of visitors. The crown of the mountain was once surrounded by an ancient fortification, the work of the mound builders; its ruins are yet visible.
South view of part of Columbus. The view shows the appearance of Columbus as seen from the bridge over the Chattahoochee River. The cotton and other mills of the Fagle and Howard Manufacturing Companies are seen in the central part. On the left, in the distance, appears the railroad connecting Macon and Montgomery, Ala. The gas-works are seen on the right.
COLUMBUS is a flourishing city on the east bank of the Chattahoochee River, 128 miles W. S. W. from Milledgeville and 290 W. of Savannah. It is at the head of steamboat navigation, 375 miles above Appalachicola, on the bay. Steamboats ply between this place and New Orleans, and the exportation of cotton constitutes a large business. A handsome bridge across the Chattahoochee connects the city with the village of Girard, in the state of Alabama. There is a succession of falls or rapids in the river immediately above Columbus by which the stream descends one hundred and ten feet in the distance of four miles, affording a water power for manufacturing purposes of great value. This place was laid out in 1828. The city extends more than a mile in the direction of the river, and about half a mile toward the interior. Population about 10,000.
Mr. Chapman was the first settler in this place. In 1827 he kept a kind of an Indian store on the bank of the river. Messrs. Steward and Fountain erected the first grist-mill at the falls. Nicholas Howard kept the first tavern. The first house of worship was erected by the Methodists. Thomas J. Hand was the first school teacher; he also officiated as Methodist minister. Drs. Childer, Kennedy and Clifton were the first physicians. Among the first settlers were Mr. Shorter, Alfred Iverson and Walter T. Colquitt (member of congress); these were the first lawyers. Mirabeau B. Lamar, afterward so distinguished in Texan history, was the first printer of the Enquirer of this place. Gen. Sowell Woolfolk, who fell in a duel with Camp, a lawyer,
was one of the early settlers. Mr. Camp was afterward killed by a shot from a store house door by one of Gen. Woolfolk's friends, who was subsequently tried and acquitted of the crime.
The following inscriptions are copied from monuments in the Columbus cemetery
Erected as a tribute of love by his family to the memory of ELI S. SHORTER, who departed this life Dec. 13, 1836, in the 44th year of his age. The eminent distinction of Judge Shorter was founded on the happiest union of the social, kindly and intellectual qualities. Profound and distinguished as a jurist, ardent as a friend and kind as a citizen, his name will be long revered in the great circle of his acquaintance, and his memory be forever embalmed in the hearts of his bereaved family. When this corruptible shall put on incorruption, and this mortal put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, death is swallowed up in victory.
“Reader! the name, profession and age of him whose body lies beneath are of little importance, but it may be of great importance to you to know that by the grace of God he was brought to look to the Lord Jesus, the only savior of sinners, and that this looking to Jesus gave peace to the soul. Reader! pray to God that you may be instructed in the gospel, and be assured that God will give his Holy Spirit, the only teacher of true wisdom, to them that ask him.”—Dr. R. Sankey, 1844.
Rev. Thomas GOULDING, D. D. He was an able and faithful pastor, a skillful comforter of the sick and afflicted ; eminently charitable, he was greatly beloved. After a long life of successful labor in the ministry, he departed this life in faith and hope, ardent for the crown of righteousness. In testimony of their affectionate regard to the memory of their venerated pastor, a grateful people have erected this monument, and the tablet in the Presbyterian Church. Born in Liberty Co., Geo., Mar. 14, 1786, ordained to the Gospel ministry Jan. 1, 1816, fell asleep in Jesus, June 21, 1848. From his pulpit, after having expounded the 63d psalm, he passed in one short hour to that rest that remaineth to the people of God. Him
that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out.—Rev. iii, 6.
Dahlonega is a thriving village, capital of Lumpkin county, 141 miles W. N. W. of Milledgeville. It is in the heart of the rich gold region of Georgia, and the Indian name is Tau-lau-ne-ca, which signifies yellow money. Several important mines are in the vicinity. The village contains a branch of the U. Š. Mint, and about 1,500 inhabitants.
Social Circle is a thriving village on the Georgia Railroad, 120 miles west of Augusta. The mountain region of Georgia is highly picturesque. In the north-eastern portion of the
state are the beautiful falls of Toccoa and of Tallulah. Both of these are near Clarksville, in Habersham county. The Toccoa falls are 186 feet in perpendicular descent. The cataracts of Tallulah are in a deep gorge of the Blue Ridge, 1,000 feet in depth. “The wild grandeur of this mountain gorge, and the variety, number and magnificence of its cataracts give it rank with the most imposing water-fall scenery in the Union.”
In Georgia are numerous medicinal springs. The
most prominent are Indian, in Butts county; Madison, ToccoA FALLS. in Madison county; Warm, in Merriweather county;
Sulphur, in Hall county; Rowland, in Cass county, Red Sulphur, in Walker county; Thundering, in Upson county; Powder, in Sobb county.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES, MISCELLANIES, ETC. General James Edward Oglethorpe, who occupies so prominent a place in the history of Georgia, was the son of Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe, and was born in London, December 21, 1688. At the age of sixteen he was admitted a student of Corpus Christi college, but he did not finish his studies, military life having more charms for him than literary pursuits. The following inscription (the longest of which we have any knowledge), on a tablet of marble in the Cranham church, gives a sketch of his life:
Near this place lie the remains of James EDWARD OGLETHORPF, Esq., who served under Prince Eugene, and, in 1714, was Captain Lieutenant in the first troop of the Queen's Guards. In 1740 he was appointed Colonel of a Regiment to be raised for Georgia. In 1745 he was appointed Major-General ; in 1747, Lieutenant-General; and in 1760, General of His Majesty's forces. In bis civil station, he was very early conspicuous. He was chosen Member of Parliament for Haslemere, in Surrey, in 1722, and continued to represent it until 1754. In the Committee of Parliament, for inquiring into the state of the jails, formed 25th of February, 1728, and of which he was Chairman, the active and persevering zeal of his benevolence found a truly suitable employment, by visiting, with his colleagues of that generous body, the dark and pestilential dungeons of the Prisons, which at that time dishonoured the metropolis ; detecting the most enormous oppressions ; obtaining exemplary punishment on those who had been guilty of such outrago against humanity and justice; and redressing multitudes from extreme misery to light and freedom. Of these, about 700, rendered, by long confinement for debt, strangers and helpless in the land of their birth, and desirous of seeking an asylum in the wilds of America, were by him conducted thither in 1732. He willingly encountered in their behalf a variety of fatigue and danger, and thus became the founder of the Colony of Georgia ; a Colony which afterward set the noble example of prohibiting the importation of slaves. This new establishment he strenuously and successfully defended against a powerful attack of the Spaniards. In the year in which he quitted England to found this settlement, he nobly strove to secure our trao national defence by sea and land--a free navy-without impressing a constitutional militia. But his social affections were more enlarged than even the term Patriotism can express : he was the friend of the oppressed negro; no part of the globe was too remote, no interest too unconnected or too much opposed to his own, to prevent the immediate succour of suffering humanity. For such qualities he received, from the ever memorable John, Duke of Argyle, a full testimony, in the British Senate, to his military character, bis natural generosity, his contempt of danger, and regard for the public. A similar encomium is perpetuated in a foreign language; and, by one of our most celebrated Poets, his remembrance is transmitted to posterity in lines justly expressive of the purity, the ardour, and the extent of his benevolence. He lived till the 1st of July, 1785; a venerable instance to what a duration a life of temperance and virtuous labor is capable of being protracted. His widow, ELIZABETH, daughter of Sir Nathan Wright, of Cranham Hall, Bart., and only sister and heiress of Sir Samuel Wright, Bart., of the same place, surviving, with regret, but with due submission to Divine Providence, an affectionate husband, after an union of more than forty years, hath inscribed to his memory these faint traces of his excellent character. “ Religion watches o'er his urn,
And Fortitude in armor drest; And all the virtues bending mourn,
Wisdom's gray locks, and Freedom join Humanity with languid eye,
The moral train to bless his shrine, Melting for others' misery;
And pensive all, around his ashes holy, Prudence, whose hands a measure hold, Their last sad honors pay in order melanAnd Temperance, with a chain of gold;
choly.” Fidelity's triumphant vest,
Tomochichi was the principal chief, or mico, or king, as the chiefs were called, of a small band of Creeks and Yamasees who had located themselves on the high land of Yamacraw, at or near where Savannah is now built. He was one of the chiefs who welcomed Oglethorpe on his first arrival. When Oglethorpe sailed for England, in May, 1734, he took with him Tomochichi and his wife, Scenawki, his nephew, and five or six chiefs of the Creek nation. On their arrival they were treated with much attention, and, being furnished with proper dresses, were introduced to his inajesty George II. Tomochichi, after presenting the king with several eagle's feathers, which were considered by his nation as the most respectful present they could send, delivered the following speech to his majesty:
“ This day I see the majesty of your face, the greatness of your house, and the number of your people. I am come for the good of the whole nation of the Creeks, to renew the peace they had made long ago with the English. I am come over in my old days; and, though I can not live to see any advantage to myself, I am come for the good of all the nations of the upper and lower Creeks, that they may be instructed in the knowledgu of the
English. These are the feathers of the eagle, the swiftest of birds, and who flieth all around our nations. These feathers, are a sign of peace in our land, and we have brought them over to leave with you, great king, as a sign of everlasting peace. 0, great king! whatsoever words you shall say unto me, I will tell them faithfully to all the kings of the Creek nations."
Tomochichi died in 1739, at the age of ninety-seven, and was buried with military parade in the court-house square at Savannah.
George Walton, a signer of the declaration of independence, was born in Virginia in 1740. He was bred a mechanic: about 1761, he emigrated to Georgia,
and began the practice of law. In 1776, he was sent to congress; in 1779, was elected governor of Georgia; in 1780, was again sent to congregs. He
afterward governor the second
time, also chief justice; and in 1798, United States Senator. He died in 1804.
Button Gwinnett, a signer of the declaration of independence, was born in Eng. land, came to Georgia in 1772, and settled on St. Catherine's Island. In the beginning of the revolutionary dificulties he was in doubt which course to take, but
the arguments of Dr. Lyman Hall, with whom he was intimate, convinced him of the justice of the American cause. In February, 1776, the gene. ral assembly of Georgia elected him a delegate to the continental congress.
he was one of the members of the convention which formed the constitution of Georgia, and, upon the death of Mr. Bullock, he became governor of the state. He also filled several other offices. Having an unfortunate controversy with General M'Intosh, he challenged him to single combat. The duel was fought near Savannah, with pistols, at a distance of twelve paces. Mr. Gwinnett was mortally wounded at the first fire, and perished at the age of forty-five. He left a wife and several children, but they did not long survive him.
Lyman Hall, a signer of the declaration of independence, was born in Connecticut, and educated at Yale college. He at first made theology his study and
profession, but afterward studied medicine. He removed to Dorchester, South Carolina, but finally came to Georgia and settled in St. John's parish, now the county of Liberty. The inhabitants of
this parish sent Dr. Hall as their delegate to the continental congress, in which capacity he was admitted to a seat in that body. Afterward Georgia, by her general assembly, determined to join the other colonies. Dr. Iall, and Mr. Gwinnett, were sent as regular delegates When the enemy took possession of Georgia, he was compelled to remove his family to the north. In 1782 he returned, and next year was elected governor of Georgia. He afterward removed to the county of Burke, where he died in 1784, in the sixty-third year of his age.
Lachlin M Intosh was born in Scotland, in 1721. His father was at the head of a branch of the clan M'Intosh, and came to Georgia with General Oglethorpe, in 1736, when Lachlin was nine years of age. His opportunities for education were limited, but his strong mind overcame many difficulties. He was of fine personal appearance, and, when young, was considered the handsomest man in Georgia. He was first appointed a colonel in the revolutionary army, and, afterward, a brigadier general. In consequence of military rivalry between him and Button Gwinnett, a duel ensired, which resulted in the death of the latter. General M'Intosh afterward commanded in the western department, and led an expedition against