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5. The remainder of the passage which Antiochus embodies points entirely in the same direction as what has gone before. Vet. Lat. incredibilis enim res est, pastorem pati posse a pecore, et

magis punietur propter mendacium suum. Pal. quia incredibile est, pastorem aliquid pati posse à pecore ;

magis autem punietur propter mendacium. Aeth. quia incredibile est, ovem interficere pastorem. si autem

non, eos qui mentiti sunt punient. Antiochus gives what is unmistakeably the original, in close correspondence with the Vet. Lat.:

άπιστον γαρ πράγμά έστιν, ποιμένα υπό προβάτων παθείν τι μάλλον δε κολασθήσονται δια το ψεύδος αυτων. .

Side by side with this set the version of Simonides :

αδύνατον γάρ έστιν όλους τους ποιμένας εκβληθήναι της μάνδρας υπό των προβάτων, ή τι έτερον κακόν παθείν αυτούς υπ' αυτών μάλλον δε ζημιωθήσονται ούτοι διά το ψεύδος αυτών τούτο. .

This last passage alone would betray the forger. Note the following points :

(1) αδύνατον as against άπιστον πράγμα.
(2) κακόν τι παθείν as against the simple παθείν τι.

(3) όλους instead of πάντας. Hilgenfeld emends and reads ölws. But it is the regular use in Modern Greek.

(4) návopa is not found in the Shepherd. Yet Simonides has it again a few lines lower down. udvdpa and pavdpi are in use in Modern Greek, and the ecclesiastical title åpxquavopirns makes them familiar words in their metaphorical meaning.

(5) The pleonastic repetition of pronouns, observable indeed in the former clauses, is even obtrusive in this last sentence : autous υπ' αυτών, and oύτoι...τούτο. This is a characteristic feature of the modern language.

At this point Antiochus ceases to quote with exactness. The next sentence, which begins with the words 'et ego sum pastor', he modifies entirely, as it could not be fitted in with his argument. But he has given us enough to convince us that the Greek conclusion of the Shepherd of Hermas is missing still.

J. A. R.

APPENDIX B.

HERMAS IN ARCADIA.

In a very ingenious paper published in a recent number of the American Journal of the Exegetical Society, Mr Rendel Harris has identified the scene of the vision described in the Ninth Similitude of the Shepherd with Orchomenus in Arcadia, a lofty natural fortress rising sheer out of a plain which is closed in by high mountains. The vision is introduced with the words : και απήγαγέ με εις την 'Αρκαδίαν, εις όρος τι μαστώδες, και εκάθισε με επι το άκρον του όρους, και έδειξέ μοι πεδίον μέγα, κύκλω δε του πεδίου όρη δώδεκα, άλλην και άλλην ιδέαν έχοντα τα όρη. To this corresponds exactly the position of the hill on which the ancient Orchomenus stood. It has an elevation of nearly 3000 feet, and it rises high and steep out of the plain. Pausanias writes : 'Ορχομενίοις δε ή προτέρα πόλις επί όρους ήν άκρα τη κορυφή, και αγοράς τε και τειχών ερείπια λείπεται (viii. 13. 2). But beyond this general correspondence Mr Harris believes that he can identify three at least of the twelve niountains from the brief descriptions given of them.

(1) Hermas speaks of his fifth mountain as έχον βοτάνας χλωράς, και τραχύ όν (Sim. ix. 1. 7; cf. 22. 1, του έχοντος βοτάνας χλωρας και τραχέος όντος).

Pausanias speaking of Orchomenus says: έστι δε απαντικρύ της πόλεως όρος Τραχύ. το δε ύδωρ το εκ του θεού δια χαράδρας ρέον κοίλης μεταξύ της τε πόλεως και του Τραχέος όρους κατείσιν ες άλλο 'Ορχομένιον πεδίον. το δε πεδίον τούτο μεγέθει μεν μέγα, τα πλείω δέ έστιν αυτού λίμνη...... η δε ετέρα των οδών......υπό το Τραχύ έστιν όρος (viii.

13. 4). Thus the fifth mountain seems to be identical with Mt Trachy which rises to the east of the Orchomenian plain.

(2) The ninth mountain according to Hermas είχεν εν αυτώ θηρία και ερπετά θανάσιμα, διαφθείροντα τους ανθρώπους (Sim. ix. 1. 9, corrected text; cf. ix. 26. 1, 7 τα θηρία διαφθείρει τα εαυτών ιώ τον άνθρωπον και απολλύει).

Pausanias speaks of άλλο όρος Σηπίας και Αιπύτω τω Ελάτου λέγουσιν ενταύθα γενέσθαι την τελευτην έκ του όφεως, και οι και τον τάφον εποίησαν αυτόθι. τούτους οι Αρκάδες τους όφεις γίνεσθαι και εφ' ημών έτι εν τω όρει φασίν (viii. 16. 3). In an earlier passage he has given the story of his death, and he tells us that the venomous creature was called ony, and moved sideways like a crab (viii. 4. 7, σηψ δε ου προιδόμενον αποκτίννυσι, κ.τ.λ.).

(3) The tenth mountain is described as όλον κατάσκιον· και υπό την σκέπην αυτού πολλά πρόβατα κατέκειντο (Sim. ix. 1. 9, corrected text; cf. 27. 1 δένδρα σκεπάζοντα πρόβατά τινα).

Pausanias (viii. 14. 1) tells us that five stadia from Karyae there is έτερον όρος Σκίαθις. Thus Mt Sepia and Mt Skiathis which lie to the north of Orchomenus, and close under Mt Cyllene, would be identified with the ninth and tenth mountains of the vision of Hermas.

Evidence of this kind is cumulative, and, if Mr Harris is right in believing that this is the district to which Hermas alludes, a careful study of its geographical features ought to enable us to carry the process of identification much further. I have observed at least four other mountains which certainly present most curious coincidences. To the west of Orchomenus, as if to balance Mt Trachy on the east, rises a mountain called Knakalus. Kαφυάταις δε ιερά θεών Ποσειδώνος έστι και επίκλησιν Κνακαλησίας Αρτέμιδος. έστι δε αυτούς και όρος Κνάκαλος, ένθα επέτειον τελετήν άγουσι τη 'Αρτέμιδι (Paus. viii. 23. 3, 4). Now κνάκος is the Doric form of κνήκος, a kind of thistle, the juice of which was used to curdle milk. The Thistle-mountain then might well correspond to the third mountain of the vision, which is briefy described as ακανθώδες και τριβόλων πλήρες (Sim. ix. 1. 5, corrected text).

Again, the eighth mountain πηγών πληρες ήν, και πάν γένος της κτίσεως του κυρίου εποτίζοντο εκ των πηγών του όρους εκείνου. Pausanias tells us that close to Mt Sepia is a ridge called Tpírpnia This no doubt was an , abbreviation of Τρικάρηνα, the three-peaked ridge'; but its popular explanation is all that we have to do with, and that is shewn by the legend that attached to it: όρη Φενεατών έστι Τρίκρηνα καλούμενα και εισίν αυτόθι κρήναι τρείς. εν ταύταις λούσαι τεχθέντα Έρμήν αι περί το όρος λέγονται νύμφαι, και επί τούτω τας πηγάς ιεράς Ερμού νομίζουσιν (viii. 16. 1).

The second mountain is briefy described as ψιλόν, βοτάνας μη exov. So common a feature we could hardly expect to connect with the name of any one mountain in particular. But it is remarkable that to the south-west of Orchomenus we read of a town and a mountain named Phalanthus (Paus. viii. 35. 9); and φάλανθος is synonymous with φαλακρός, which, like ψιλός, means “bald'.

Mr Harris wonders that there should be no reference in the vision to Mt Cyllene, the most conspicuous feature in the landscape. Such an omission would be almost impossible for anyone who had ever been in Arcadia at all. He can only suggest as an explanation that Hermas must have got his information at secondhand either from Pausanias or from some guide-book from which both he and Pausanias borrowed. But must not Mt Cyllene be the twelfth and most beautiful mountain of all ? The description of this last mountain is very striking: το δε δωδέκατον όρος όλον ήν λευκόν, και η πρόσοψις αυτού ιλαρά ήν· και ευπρεπέστατον ήν εαυτό το όρος (Sim. ix. 1. 10). Cyllene towers high above all the surrounding hills. Its height is nearly 8000 feet, and it is covered with snow during a large part of the year. What mountain but a snowmountain could be white enough to be a symbol of unstained innocence, such as is described in the wonderful interpretation of the vision 3 εκ δε του όρους του δωδεκάτου του λευκού οι πιστεύσαντες τοιούτοι εισιν' ως νήπια βρέφη εισίν, οίς ουδεμία κακία αναβαίνει εις την καρδίαν, ουδε έγνωσαν τι εστι πονηρία, αλλά πάντοτε εν νηπιότητα διέμειναν......πάντα γαρ τα βρέφη ένδοξά εστι παρά τω θεώ και πρώτα παρ' αυτώ (ix. 29. 1). It is true that Ηermas regards the stones of the white mountain as themselves white, but that is part of the allegory. . Quite in the same way he regards the stones of Mt Trachy as τραχείς (ix. 6. 4 ; 8. 6). When we remember the current belief that the peak of Mt Cyllene was unreached by either cloud or wind, so that the very ashes on the altar of Hermes were found undisturbed whenever the worshippers returned for the annual sacrifice', how beautifully is the symbolism of its perpetual calm interpreted in words like these: οι τοιούτοι ούν αδιστάκτως κατοικήσουσιν εν τη βασιλεία του θεού, ότι εν ουδενί πράγματι εμίαι αν τας εντολές του θεού, αλλά μετά νηπιότητος διέμειναν πάσας τας ημέρας της ζωής αυτών εν τη αυτή φρονήσει. όσοι ούν διαμενείτε, και έσεσθε ως τα βρέφη, κακίαν μη έχοντες, πάντων των προειρημένων ενδοξότεροι έσεσθε.

.

These identifications of Knakalus, Trikrena, Phalanthus and Cyllene may well be set side by side with those of Trachy, Sepia and Skiathis. Of the remaining five mountains of the vision perhaps we may hazard a guess at two. The sixth mountain is • full of fissures' (Sim. ix. 1. 7, σχισμών όλον έγεμεν, ων μεν μικρών, v meyádwv). We need not be afraid to see here traces of natural scenery peculiarly characteristic of Arcadia : nor does the subsequent mention of the stones themselves as σχισμάς έχοντες (ix. 6. 4) prevent us from regarding the feature as primarily belonging to the mountain itself. Pausanias says that close to Mt Skiathis was another mountain called "Opušis (viii. 14. 1) and he goes on to speak of an opvyna, dug by Hercules to drain the neighbouring plain. But not much stress can be laid on this.

The first mountain is described in three words: Mélav ws dopóln (Sim. ix. 1. 5). Possibly an examination of the district would elucidate this. 'Aoßóan is a later form of ao ßolos, soot'. Certain stones are afterwards spoken of as μέλανες ώσει ασβόλη; but there is nothing to throw further light on the description.

In Ovid's Metamorphoses (iii. 218) one of Actaeon's hounds is called Asbolus :

* Et niveis Leucon, et villis Asbolus atris'.

It is a curious coincidence that Arcadian dogs have been mentioned a few lines above :

Pamphagus et Dorceus et Oribasus, Arcades omnes',

The only local name that seems to offer any correspondence to this black mountain is that of a small town called Melayyeữa on the side of the mountain as you descend the Climax, the pass with rock-hewn steps, between Argolis and Mantinea. Here there was a worship of 'Aøpodirn Melaivis, of whose title a quite impossible account is given by Pausanias (viii. 6. 5). Part of the plain between Artemisia and Mantinea was called 'Apyov medlov, as he distinctly tells us, from its whiteness, and there must be some physical explanation of the contrasted title of the town Melayyeia, or Blackland.

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