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(5) This shows, as in the other cases, the contour lines for the warped section of a square prism under torsion.

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(6), (7), (8). These are shaded drawings, showing the appearances presented by elliptic, square, and flat rectangular bars under

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exaggerated torsion, as may be realized with such a substance as India rubber.

677. Inasmuch as the moment of inertia of a plane area about an axis through its centre of inertia perpendicular to its plane is obviously equal to the sum of its moments of inertią round any two axes through the same point, at right' angles to one another in its plane, the fallacious extension of Coulomb's law, referred to in § 673, would make the torsional rigidity of a bar of any section.equal to ($ 665) multiplied into the sum of its flexural rigidities (see below, § 679) in any two planes at right angles to one another through its length. The true theory, as we have seen (8 675), always gives a torsional rigidity less than this. How great the deficiency may be expected to be in cases in which the figure of the section presents projecting angles, or considerable prominences (which may be imagined from the hydrokinetic analogy we have given in $ 675), has been pointed out by M. de St. Venant, with the important practical application, that strengthening ribs, or projections (see, for instance, the fourth annexed diagram), such as are introduced in engineering to give stiffness to beams, have the reverse of a good effect when torsional rigidity or strength is an object, although they are truly of great value in increasing the flexural rigidity, and giving

strength to bear ordinary strains, which are always more or less flexural. With remarkable ingenuity and mathematical skill he has drawn beautiful illustrations of this important practical principle from his algebraic and transcendental solutions. Thus for an equilateral

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triangle, and for the rectilineal and three curvilineal squares shown in the annexed diagram, he finds for the torsional rigidities the values stated. The number immediately below the diagram indicates in each case the fraction which the true torsional rigidity is of the old fallacious estimate (8 673); the latter being the product of the rigidity of the substance into the moment of inertia of the cross section round an axis perpendicular to its plane through its centre of inertia. The second number indicates in each case the fraction which the torsional rigidity is of that of a solid circular cylinder of the same sectional area.

678. M. de St. Venant also calls attention to a conclusion from his solutions which to many may be startling, that in his simpler cases the places of greatest distortion are those points of the boundary which are nearest to the axis of the twisted prism in each case, and the places of least distortion those farthest from it. Thus in the elliptic cylinder the substance is most strained at the ends of the smaller principal diameter, and least at the ends of the greater. In the equilateral triangular and square prisms there are longitudinal lines of maximum strain through the middles of the sides. In the oblong rectangular prism there are two lines of greater maximum strain through the middles of the broader pair of sides, and two lines of less maximum strain through the middles of the narrow sides. The strain is, as we may judge from (s 675) the hydrokinetic analogy, excessively small, but not evanescent, in the projecting ribs of a prism of the figure shown in (4) $ 677. It is quite evanescent infinitely near the angle, in the triangular and rectangular prisms, and in each other case as (3) of $ 677, in which there is a finite angle, whether acute or obtuse, projecting outwards. This reminds us of a general remark we have to make, although consideration of space may

oblige us to leave it without formal proof. A solid of any elastic substance, isotropic or aeolotropic, bounded by any surfaces presenting projecting edges or angles, or re-entrant angles or edges, however obtuse, cannot experience any finite stress or strain in the neighbourhood of a projecting angle (trihedral, polyhedral, or conical); in the neighbourhood of an edge, can only experience simple longitudinal stress parallel to the neighbouring part of the edge; and generally experiences infinite stress and strain in the neighbourhood of a re-entrant edge or angle; when influenced by any distribution of force, exclusive of surface tractions infinitely near the angles or edges in question. An important application of the last part of this statement is the practical rule, well known in mechanics, that every re-entering edge or angle ought to be rounded to prevent risk of ruptute, in solid pieces designed to bear stress. An illustration of these principles is afforded by the complete mathematical solution of the torsion problem for prisis of fan-shaped sections, such as the annexed figures. In the cases corresponding to figures (4), (5), (6) below, the distortion at the centre of the circle vanishes in (4), is finite and determinate in (5), and infinite in (6).

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679. Hence in a rod of isotropic substance the principal axes of flexure ($ 609) coincide with the principal axes of inertia of the area of the normal section; and the corresponding flexural rigidities are the moments of inertia of this area round these axes multiplied by Young's modulus. Analytical investigation leads to the following results, due to St. Venant. Imagine the whole rod divided, parallel to its length, into infinitesimal filaments (prisms when the rod is straight). Each of these contracts or swells laterally with sensibly the same freedom as if it were separated from the rest of the substance, and becomes elongated or shortened in a straight line to the same extent as it is really elongated or shortened in the circular arc which it becomes in the bent rod. The distortion of the cross section by which these changes of lateral dimensions are necessarily accompanied is illustrated in the annexed diagram, in which either the whole normal section of a rectangular b'eam, or a rectangular area in the normal section of a beam of any figure, is represented in its strained and unstrained figures, with the central point o common to the two. The flexure is in planes perpendicular to YO Y,, and concave upwards (or towards X); G the centre of curvature, being in the direction indicated, but too far to be included in the diagram. The straight

sides AC, BD, and all straight lines parallel to them, of the unstrained rectangular area become concentric arcs of circles concave in the

opposite direction, their centre of curvature, H, being for rods of gelatinous substance, or of glass or metal, from 2 to 4 times as far from O on one side as G is on the other. Thus the originally plane sides AC, BD of a rectangular bar become anticlastic surfaces, of curvatures - and , in the two principal sections. A flat rectangular, or a square, rod of India-rubber [for which o amounts ($655) to very nearly ], and which is susceptible of very great amounts of strain without utter loss of corresponding elastic action], exhibits this phenomenon remarkably well.

680. The conditional limitation (5605) of the curvature to being very small in comparison with that of a circle of radius equal to the greatest diameter of the normal section (not obviously necessary, and indeed not generally known to be necessary, we believe, when the greatest diameter is perpendicular to the plane of curvature) now receives its full explanation. For unless the breadth, AC, of the bar (or diameter perpendicular to the plane of flexure) be very small in comparison with the mean proportional between the radius, OH, and the thickness, AB, the distances from O Y to the corners A', C' would fall short of the half thickness, OE, and the distances to B', D' would exceed it by differences comparable with its own amount. This would give rise to sensibly less and greater shortenings and stretchings

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