## Elements of Natural Philosophy |

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Page 45

Any such definite alteration of form or dimensions is called a

which becomes longer or shorter is strained . Water , when compressed , is

strained . A stone , beam , or mass of metal , in a building or in a piece of

framework , if ...

Any such definite alteration of form or dimensions is called a

**Strain**. Thus a rodwhich becomes longer or shorter is strained . Water , when compressed , is

strained . A stone , beam , or mass of metal , in a building or in a piece of

framework , if ...

Page 46

In any absolutely unrestricted homogeneous

three principal axes of the

remain at right angles to one another in the altered condition of the body .

In any absolutely unrestricted homogeneous

**strain**there are three directions ( thethree principal axes of the

**strain**ellipsoid ) , at right angles to one another , whichremain at right angles to one another in the altered condition of the body .

Page 47

The consideration of the circular sections of the

instructive , and leads to important views with reference to the analysis of the

most general character of a

volume on ...

The consideration of the circular sections of the

**strain**ellip soid is highlyinstructive , and leads to important views with reference to the analysis of the

most general character of a

**strain**. First let us suppose there to be no alteration ofvolume on ...

Page 48

Hence , irrespectively of any rotation , or other absolute motion of the body not

involving change of form or dimensions , the

produced by holding fast and unaltered the plane of the body through AC ' ...

Hence , irrespectively of any rotation , or other absolute motion of the body not

involving change of form or dimensions , the

**strain**under consideration may beproduced by holding fast and unaltered the plane of the body through AC ' ...

Page 49

altered condition of the body , and the lines bisecting the altered angles are the

principal axes of the

shear for the plane of the diagram , let AB be a line in which it is cut by one of

either ...

altered condition of the body , and the lines bisecting the altered angles are the

principal axes of the

**strain**in the altered body . Otherwise , taking a plane ofshear for the plane of the diagram , let AB be a line in which it is cut by one of

either ...

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### Common terms and phrases

acceleration according acting action amount angle angular applied attraction axes axis body called centre centre of inertia circle component condition consider constant corresponding couple course curvature curve denote density described determined direction displacement distance divided effect elastic elements energy equal equations equilibrium expression figure fixed fluid force friction give given gravity harmonic Hence important increase infinitely small instant interval kinetic length less mass matter mean measured method motion moving natural normal observation opposite parallel particle passing path period perpendicular plane portion position potential practical pressure principle produce projection proportional quantity radius reference relative remain remarkable resistance respectively rest resultant right angles rigid rotation round sides simple solid space spherical square straight strain stress suppose surface theory turned uniform unit velocity vertical weight whole wire