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In all, there are twelve sepulchral chapels in this venerable structure, containing several curious monuments of the Sovereigns and nobility of Great Britain; that of Henry VII. already mentioned, Edward the Confessor, St. Benedict, St. John the Baptist, St. Edmund, St. Paul, St. Nicholas, Henry V., St. Erasmus, St. John the Evangelist, St. Michael, and St. Andrew :-the three last mentioned are now laid into
It must suffice to notice these briefly.
In Edward the Confessor's chapel, which is situated at the east end of the choir, are several royal tombs; also the celebrated CORONATION CHAIR, and the still more celebrated stone, which was brought from Scone, in Scotland, in 1267, by Edward I., and which monkish tradition relates to have been JACOB's PILLAR.
In the chapel of St. Benedict, is an ancient tomb of Langham, who was Abbot of Westminster, and Archbishop of Canterbury.
The chapel of St. John the Baptist, contains two handsome monuments: that of John Islip, Abbot of Westminster, and that of Sir Christopher Hatton.
In St. Edmund's, near the entrance, is an alabaster statue of John of Eltham, second son of Edward II. Here we behold, also, monuments to the memories of John, Lord Russel, Lady Jane Seymour, William de Valence, and Mary, Countess of Stafford, wife to the unfortunate Viscount, who was beheaded on Tower Hill in the reign of Charles II.
St. Paul's chapel contains monuments of Sir Thomas Bromley, privy councillor and chancellor to Queen Elizabeth ; Sir John Puckering, lord keeper of the great seal of England, in the same reign; Frances, Countess of Sussex; and a very ancient one of Lewis Robert, standard bearer to Henry V.
The chapel of St. Nicholas has to boast of several elegant memorials of the dead, among which are those of Ann, Duchess of Somerset; Lady Burleigh; the Duchess of Northumberland, who is represented on a sofa, dispepsing favors to a group of indigent beings who surround her; and two beautiful pyramids, in remembrance of Nicholas Bagenall, and Anna Sophia Harley, who died in their infancy.
Separated only by an iron screen, from St. Paul's chapel, is that of Henry V., in which lies the heroic founder, who acquired unfading honors by the memorable battle of Agincourt. In this chapel are a waxen figure of Edmund Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, the sword and shield of Edward III., and some curious models. There are also a helmet, shield, and saddle, said
to bave been used by Henry V. at the battle of Agincourt. In St. Erasmus's chapel, the following monuments claim particular notice :—that to Henry Carey, first consin of Queen Elizabeth ; Thomas Carey, gentleman of the bed-chamber to Charles I., and Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter.
In the chapel of St. John the Evangelist, the most remarkable monuments are those to the memory of Sir Charles Vere, and Sir George Pocock: the tomb of the latter hero is ornamented with a figure of Britannia, and other emblematical devices, Illustrative of his gallant conduct at the reduction of Geriab, Chandernagore, and the Havannah.
In St. Michael's chapel, is a finely executed tomb by Roobiliac, to the memory of Joseph Gascoigne Nightingale, and his lady. Opposite to this is the monument of the Earl and Countess of Mountrath; both these deserve particular notice.
In the chapel of St. Andrew, are monuments to the memory of several eminent personages ; those to Sir Henry Norris, famous for his gallant conduct in the Low Countries during the reign of Elizabeth, and to Susannah Jane Davidson, are the most elegant.
1 To describe all the monuments we meet with in our walk through this great mausoleum would be impossible; and barely to enumerate their names would furnish nothing more than a long dull catalogue. Suffice it, therefore, to say, that in the area and aisles of the church they are very numerous, and many of them are masterpieces in the art of sculpture. The statue of Shakspeare, and that of his great exemplifier, David Garrick, are particularly attractive. Among the rest who bave a memorial here, the spectator will recognise General Wolfe, the Earl of Mansfield, Chaucer, Spencer, Ben Jonson, Milton, Butler, Prior, Gay, Goldsmith, Dryden, Addison, Thomson, Rowe, Cowley, Handel, and Sir Isaac Newton. Truly may we say with Beaumont:--
“ Here is a world of pomp and state
Buried in dust." It was formerly the custom to keep open the great western door during the day, and strangers were permitted to see the greater part of the church gralis; but now we are shut out from all, even the Poet's Corner, unless the demand of two shillings, the sum now required of visitors to see the monuments, is first paid.
To the north of the Abbey stood the ancient sanctuary, and westward of the sanctuary was the almonry, where the first printing press was erected by Caxton, who printed here in 1474, “ The Game and Play of Chesse," the first book printed in this country.
On leaving this ancient cathedral, the sublime reflections of Addison, when visiting the same place, are truly appropriate.
“ When I look upon the tombs of the great,” says he,“ every emotion of envy dies in me; when I read the epitaphs of the beautiful, every inordinate desire goes out; when I meet with the grief of parents upon a tomb-stone, my heart melts with compassion ; when I see the tomb of the parents themselves, I consider the vanity of grieving for those whom we must quickly follow; when I see Kings lying by those who deposed then, when I consider rival wits placed side by side, or the holy men that divided the world with their contests and disputes, I reflect with sorrow and astonishment on the little competitions, factions, and debates of mankind. When I read the several dates of the tombs, of some that died yesterday, and some six hundred years ago, I consider that great day when we shall all of us be contemporaries, and make our appearance together.”
Prythee why so pale?
Looking ill prevail ?
Prythee why so pale?
Prythee why so mute ?
Saying nothing do't?
Prythee why so mute?
This cannot take her ;
Nothing can make her:--
CAPILLOLOGY versus PHRENOLOGY.
“Look here upon this picture and on this,
I owe my acquaintance with the science of Capillology to a propensity for walking about the streets, wbich sometimes takes possession of me, and will not be gainsayed. A few evenings since, a fit of this description seized me about half-past six o'clock, and I at once rushed into the street-paced along St. James' Street, Pall Mall, and the Strand, and reached St. Clement's Church, before the walking devil began to feel fatigued. Upon arriving at this point, I paused for a moment to consider, whether it would be more advisable to continue my peregrinations as far as Aldgate Pump, or return home, and run the risk of another attack about midnight. The question was of some importance, and I extricated myself from the crowd that I might weigh it more at leisure. “Plague take my Philowalkativeness !" I exclaimed, and happening at that moment to turn my head towards a tavern which has been long celebrated for the tag, rag and bob-tail meetings which have been held there, I espied at the door a notice, informing the public, that Professor Hardhead would deliver a lecture that evening, at seven o'clock, on the principles of the science of Capillology. Zounds!" thought I, “ that is another new science: ologies spring up now-a-days, as mushrooms used to do in the dull time of our ancestors. Capillology! why what can that be about? This is the very time for the commencement, I will go in and hear the lecture.” No sooner said than done. I was soon shown into the lecture room, where I found seven dirty people sitting in anxious expectation of the Professor's appearance. A part of the room, around the lecturer's chair, was raised and enclosed, and there, to my great astonishment, I beheld ranged upon barbers' blocks what appeared to be about fifty or sixty old wigs! All sorts, sizes, and descriptions, contributed to form this collection, from the humble scratch and jasy, to the glorious full-bottomed lawyer's court accompaniment. Some few were upon busts of distinguished characters, but by far the greater part were ranged, as I before remarked, upon barbers' blocks. I had scarcely time to gratify my curiosity by an inspection of this choice and novel museum, when the Professor entered, and, after several low bows to the numerous audience that his announcement had collected, proceeded to the chair, and prepared to commence his harangue. It is some time since I had occasion to practise my short hand, but as the little man spoke very slowly and pompously, I was enabled to take down his discourse, which I shall annex without comment. Perhaps, I ought to add, for the information of those who like to be acquainted with the persons of celebrated men, that Mr. Hardhead is a dapper little Professor, about five feet high, with long nose rather turned upwards, dull grey eyes, large mouth, a pale dirty-looking round
face, and an astonishingly profuse head of neither light nor dark colored hair. His address, as near as I could catch it, was as follows:
“ Ladies and Gentlemen-I shall not, in the present instance, detain you by an inquiry into the opinions which were entertained by the ancients upon the interesting and all-paramount questions suggested by the study of the human mind; such an inquiry would occupy too much of your time, and would detain you from the consideration of the important science which I have ventured to call you here to-night to investigate. I shall, therefore, proceed at once to lay before you the whole scheme and intention of Capillology; and shall, as I go on, produce some few of the inexhaustible store of proofs which it has been the labor of my life to accumulate-proofs which I venture to defy any inquiring man to shake.
“ I will not do any one in the room so great an injustice, as to suppose bim ignorant of the existence of a science termed, in the first instance, Craniology, afterwards Phrenology, and now, I understand, about to be changed to Crookedology, in honor of an apostle of that science, whose ultra-sagacity has discovered that men do not, as was anciently supposed, eat with their teeth, but with their brains. It is not my intention to enter minutely into the details of this eating science; and I mention it, at this time, merely that no one may imagine I am desirous of building up the science of Capillology upon the foundation of Phrenology, or at all appropriating to my use the labor which its mis-guided disciples have bestowed upon it. No, Ladies and Gentlemen, Capillology stands not in need of support from any science-it builds itself upon the immutable foundation of truth-it comes to you grounded upon experience-it is a demonstrable science; and, whatever may be the success of my humble efforts, they will, I am confident, one day or other, be acknowledged, admitted, and allowed.
• The cloud-capt towers, the gorgeous palaces,
Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve;' but Capillology, and the studies connected with it, shall remain « amidst the wreck of worlds.'
“One word more, and I will proceed to the main purport of our meeting. Capillology is not as yet a perfect science; many things which
weak and unassisted observation may have left unnoticed, will no doubt hereafter be discovered; but this, it will be remembered, forms no argument against the science itself, but rather against me, and, God knows, I am willing to bear all your anger, if my favorite science be left untouched.
“ The first and leading proposition with which I set out is, that all men have some governing, active, power-some thinking principlewithin them, which, in our language, is called the Mind. This fact will, I am sure, be readily admitted; and, I expect, that the same sanction will be given to my second proposition, which is, that the head is the seat of the mind, and, therefore, for any outward developement of the interior mind, we must look to the head. The Phrenologist agrees with me in this; but he looks to the conformation of the skull, and, by its mountains and vallies, pretends to discover the mind-just as if by feeling a clock-case, you could tell the time of day: or, by inspecting a man's teeth, you could discover the strength of his appetite. And yet, palpably ridiculous as this system is, it has met with its defenders; how much more, then, may I reckon upon support, when I promulgate to you the simple, the reasonable, the undeniable, and demonstrable doctrines of Capillology! Our leading principle is not, that the skull can denote the powers of the mind, but that these powers are most clearly and assuredly to be discovered from an inspection of the hair of the head; and, from this circumstance, our science is termed Capillology-capillus signifying the hair of the head.
“ In the first place, then, in support of this science, I would remark, that it certainly is more reasonable than Phrenology upon this simple ground. Phrenology imagines that the outward surface, á hard bony inflexible substance, should tell you what is going on within it, as if the wall of a house should disclose the number and character of its inhabitants; whereas we see clearly, that the hairs of our head are as it were plants shooting out from the brain itselfscouts sent out by the mind; and instead of being hard and unyielding, they take whatever shape the mind chooses to give them they are the obedient and appointed servants of the all-controlling principle.
“Having thus established that Capillology is certainly more reasonable than Phrenology, I shall proceed to lay before you proofs of an evident and intimate connection between the mind and the hair of the head. First, then, whatever affects the mind, and especially if it affects it suddenly, is certain of producing a corresponding effect in the hair. Thus we know, that instances frequently oceur, and history furnishes many examples, wherein excessive grief, pain, study, or any thing that affects the mind violently, produces an almost instantaneous effect upon the hair. The hair of Marie Antoinette, the unfortunate Queen of France, turned grey in a night, so did that of the Doge Marino Faliero of Venice, both of them from grief; and we also know, that upon sudden fright, which affects the mind
· The knotty and combined locks will part,
Like quills upon the fretsul porcupine.' And if we look into the economy of the lower animals for instances, which Phrenology has condescended to do, what proof can be discovered stronger than the erection of the bristles of a hog, and the whiskers of a cat, which are sure to take place upon any sudden emotion affecting the mind of either of those animals! All these are clear proofs of the positive of my proposition, that there does exist an intimate and evident connection between the hair and the mind; but I will go farther-farther than the rules of argu