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“ The bloom of op'ning flowers unsully'd beauty,
Softness and sweetest innocence she wears,
“ Fairer to be seen
DRYDEN. Democritus held that the pleasure of love is but a short “epilepsy,” or, in other words, a convulsion of the whole body, which puts a stop to all animal actions, and proceeds from a disorder of the brain. It would only be necessary to give the definition of
epilepsy” to prove the absurdity of such an assertion, but to enter into such an argument too deeply would be incompatible with my present design; thus far, however, I may assert, that no pleasures are comparable to those which affect the heart; and over all such affections love reigns supreme. Mere animal pleasure the delight of the voluptuary---is a vulgar, pitiful, and degrading counterfeit of genuine love: it may be enjoyed without loving, and loved without enjoyment.
Such men cannot estimate womankind, for they judge them by the worthless part of their sex. If men were so judged, the injustice would be properly estimated. Love is the bond of two hearts sympathizing with each other; and the foundation of this sympathy, and its first and primary qualification, must be virtue !! It is an impression upon the mind, rather than upon the senses, and not one sensual particle taints its godlike quality. The virtues of mankind (and in those I would include womankind also, lest my fair readers might think they were intentionally omitted) are clearly connected with each other, and the tenderness of the heart is amongst the first of them; it is, indeed, a positive defect of soul, to be incapable of love. The morals are improved by it, the heart is ameliorated, and the temper rendered more pliable and more humane. By its means, we acquire the habit of commanding, controling, and even repressing our desires, and of conforming our tastes and inclina. tions to places, times, and persons.
Ye sensual men, to you chaste delights may be an incomprehensible enigma, or a ridiculous paradox ; Love, whose standard you pretend to follow, is to you unknown ; in his eyes you are the profane, who deserve not to be initiated in his sacred mysteries. You have, it is true, practised in your glass the complaisant smile! the lively glance! the empassioned look! You have adorned your persons with all the extravagance of dress and fashion ; and foolishly elated with these pitiful advantages, you have displayed your triumphant airs. Your attempt is vain ;-the folly which prompts it can never secure
To those who are with me in opinion, I address myself thus :--Endeavour to merit woman's love as your best and surest claim to it, and remember that it is as glorious to keep possession of a heart, as to conquer it! But have I not in some degree wandered from my original theme? The merry month of May has vanished in a digression upon Love. But who can think of one, and yet not
couple with it the consideration of the other ? Christmas and its merriment are dedicated to Friendship, and the mind at once recognizes their connection. So also in the merry month of May" we seem to partake of the new vigour which is displayed in the external world; it is not less the spring-time of the heart than of nature. We feel the influence of times and seasons-and it would be ingratitude towards the good Providence whose care spreads new beauties around us, did not our hearts now glow with renewed thankfulness and affection. It was as at this time, and with such feelings, that I wrote the following lines, with which I shall conclude. They were composed for a lady upon presenting her with a bouquet of Mayflowers.
Go, lovely flow'rs,
Some happy hours
Tell her how sweet and fair she seems to be.
And whisper this,
Ere dawning bliss
Go, pretty flow'rs,
Brief are thy hours,
If gentle Love
I hope he'll prove
Thy vernal bloom
So fair a tomb
Let babbling tongues
Ne'er heed thy wrongs,
I can forgive,
But while I live,
RECOLLECTIONS OF LONDON.
THE TOWER. Tue Tower of London is situated on the east side of the city, near the Thames, and the best situation for a fortress that could have been chosen ; it stands about 800 yards eastward of London Bridge, and consequently near enough to cover this opulent city from invasion by water. We do not read, however, that this ancient fortress has ever had to act against a foreign enemy, (whatever the first intention was) but our domestic troubles in early days were such, as to raise its importance by sometimes calling the garrison into action.
Longchamps, Bishop of Ely, was keeper of the Tower when Richara the First was in the Holy Land; and this haughty prelate, for a short time, found a refuge here against those nobles who were roused to resist his tyranny, and who obliged him to surrender ; in order to effect his escape in safety, he habited himself as a female. At first the Tower consisted of no more than the part now called the White Tower; the building of which has been erroneously attributed to Julius Cæsar. Before the Conquest, we appear to have no authentic documents to prove the existence of any place of strength on this spot.
Stow, on the authority of Edmund of Hadenham's Register Book of the acts of the Bishops of Rochester, says, " that he (William the Conqueror) built the White Tower, about the year 1078, appointing Gundulph, Bishop of Rochester, and the most celebrated architect of that period, to superintend the work.
William Rufus and Henry the First made considerable additions to the original structure; and we are informed that Rufus built the surrounding wall in 1097, and that Longchamps inclosed the fortifications by the ditch, as it now is, and in other respects improved the place. Several of our succeeding Princes enlarged it by additional works; the church was rebuilt by Edward III.
In the year 1638 the White Tower was rebuilt; it is a large square irregular stone building, situated almost in the centre, and consists of three very lofty stories, under which are spacious and commodious vaults; the roof is covered with flat leads, from whence, it will easily be conceived, there is an extensive prospect. In one of the cells (tben used as state prisons) it is traditionally reported that Sir Walter Raleigh wrote his History of the World. Of its Watch Towers, of which there are four, at the top, it is rather remarkable that no two of them are built alike. On the second floor of this tower is an apartment, commonly called Cæsar's Chapel, which Mr. Bayley says, in his History of the Tower of London, “ may justly be said to exhibit one of the finest and most perfect specimens of the Norman style of architecture now extant in this country."
In the uppermost story is a room, reported to have been the Council Chamber, in which the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard the Third, is said to have ordered the execution of Lord Hastings, and the arrest of the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of Ely, and Lord Stanley.
The Tower still continues to be a state prison. In 1794 Horne Tooke, Hardy, and others, were confined here. The last to be mentioned (and may they be the last, possessing such diabolical dispositions) are Thistlewood and his associates in treason, who in 1820 suffered at the Old Bailey for a conspiracy, known by the name of the Cato Street Conspiracy. During the trial they were removed from the Tower every morning to the Old Bailey, and conveyed back in the evening.
The church of St. Peter ad Vincula, mentioned as having been rebuilt by Edward III. although in itself a plain building, and destitute of ornament, is nevertheless interesting, from the many distinguished personages who at last found repose in it after falling victims to tyranny and oppression; amongst them, the following may be mentioned.
John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, beheaded on Tower Hill, June 22, 1535, sleeps in the same tomb with Cromwell
, bis patron, and the virtuous Sir Thomas More. Anne Boleyn, whose absence Henry the Eighth once declared gave “ greater pains to his heart than angel or scripture could express," was beheaded May 19, 1536.
Her brother, George Boleyn, Lord Rochford, was beheaded two days previous.
Thomas Seymour, Baron Sudley, and Lord High Ad al, beheaded in 1549, by a warrant from his own brother, the Protector Somerset, who, in less than three years, was brought to the block on the same scaffold.
Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, was beheaded January 24, 1552.
John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, beheaded August 22, 1553.
Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, the favorite of Elizabeth, who sent him to the block, February 25, 1602.
John Scott, Duke of Monmouth, son of Charles II., beheaded July 15, 1685, for asserting his right to the crown against James II.
The Earl of Kilmarnock, and Lord Balmerino, were beheaded August 18, 1746, for being concerned in the rebellion in Scotland ; and Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, convicted of the same crime, suffered in the following year, and lies in the same grave.
After this inelancholy detail, it may be observed that several officers of the Tower are also reposing within these walls: Talbot Edwards, who defeated Colonel Blood's attempt to steal the crown, is one that ought to be mentioned.
The principal entrance is by three gates to the west, one within the other. The first of these opens to a court, on the right band of which is the Lion's Tower. The second opens to a stone bridge over the ditch, (this ditch was cleansed in 1663, and railed round in 1758) at the end of which is the third gate, with a portcullis. Within this, on the right hand, is the draw-bridge, for foot-passengers to and from the Tower wharf; parallel with this, upon the walls, is a platform, called the Ladies' Line, from which is a fine prospect of the shipping on the Thames. From this there is a walk round the Tower walls, on which are three batteries, viz. the Devil's Battery, the Stone Battery, and the Wooden Battery, each mounted with cannon.
The principal officer to whom the government of this fortress is committed, is deno. minated the Constable of the Tower, and this place is commonly given to a person of consequence (the Duke of Wellington now fills the situation). To mention the various offices, and the additional buildings for the various important purposes to which they are applied, and to specify their contents, would require the space of a volume; it must therefore be sufficient simply to state, that here are the Offices of Ordnance, of the Keeper of the Records, the Jewel Office, the Horse Armoury, the Mint, Barracks for the Soldiers, the Spanish Armoury, &c. &c.
The contents of the Spanish Armoury, a great portion of which are the spoils of what was vainly called the Invincible Armada, present, in the disposition of so vast a variety of arms, a thousand peculiarities which no description can reach ; every one should see this collection of the noblest curiosities of its kind in the world.
The signal defeat of the Spanish Navy in the reign of Philip II., will ever endear the name of Elizabeth to Britons: out of one hundred and thirty ships which arrived in the channel, scarce seventy of them returned home; and out of 30,000 men on board, upwards of 20,000 were either killed, drowned, or made prisoners by the English.
In conclusion, it may be said of the Tower, that it is a place so very considerable, and of so much importance, as to merit a visit from all who come to London. Within the walls it covers twelve acres and five rods of ground, and the circuit outside the ditch, is one thousand and fifty-two feet.
THE MONUMENT. This Monument, emphatically so called, was erected by order of Parliament to commemorate the dreadful conflagration in 1666, and of the rebuilding of the City. It is a fine stately fluted column of the Doric order, and stands on the East side of Fish Street Hill, in a square open to the street, known by the appellation of the Monument Yard.
The design of this column is Sir Christopher Wren's; it was begun in the year 1671, and completed by that great architect in 1677. Its greatest altitude is 202 feet, the exact distance westward, we are told, from the spot in Pudding Lane, where the calamitous fire broke out. The .diameter at the base is 15 feet. The height of the pedestal is 40, on which at the angles are four dragons, (the supporters of the city arms,) and between them are symbols of arts, sciences, commerce, &c. The ascent is by a staircase of black marble, containing 345 steps, which leads to the iron balcony, surrounding a cone 32 feet high, and supporting a blazing urn of brass, gilt. It is said that Sir Christopher meant to have placed on its summit, a colossal statue, in brass, gilt, of King Charles II. as founder of the new city, after the manner of the Roman Pillars, which terminated with the statues of their Cæsars, and that the urn is contrary to his opinion.
Great fault has also been found with the situation this column is placed in, by an historian of the city, wbo says, “ Had it been raised where Cheapside Conduit stood, it would have been as effectual a memorial of the misfortune it is designed to record; it would have added an inexpressible beauty to the vista, and would have received as much as it gave."
The West side of the pedestal is adorned with curious emblems, by the masterly hand of Mr. Cibber (Colley Cibber's father). The principal figure is a female, representing the City of London, sitting in a languishing posture on a heap of ruins : her head droops, and her hand, with an air of languor, lies carelessly on her sword. Behind is Time, gradually raising her up: at her side, a woman, representing Providence, gently touches her with one hand, while with a winged sceptre in the other, she directs her to regard two Goddesses in the clouds, one with a cornucopia, denoting plenty, the other with a palm branch, the emblem of peace. At her feet is a bee-hive, to show that by industry and application the greatest misfortunes may be over
Behind Time are citizens exulting at his endeavours to restore her; and beneath, in the midst of the ruins, is a dragon, the supporter of the city arms, endeavouring to preserve them with his paw. Nearer the north end is a view of the city in flames; the inhabitants in consternation, with their arms extended upwards, and crying out for succour.
On the other side, on an elevated pavement, stands King Charles II. in a Roman habit, approaching the figure representing the city, with a truncheon in his hand, he seems to command three of his attendants to descend to her relief: the first represents the Sciences, holding in her hand Nature, with her numerous breasts ready to give assistance to all : the second is Architecture, with a plan in one hand, and a square and pair of compasses in the other: and the third is Liberty, waving lier cap in the air, shewing her joy at the pleasing prospect of the city's speedy recovery. Justice and Fortitude, and Envy too, peeping from her cell underneath the king, are also among the groupe. In the upper part of the back ground, the re-construction of the city is represented by scaffolds, erected by the sides of unfinished houses, with builders and laborers at work upon them. The other sides of the pedestal have each a Latin inscription. That on the north side may be thus rendered : “ In the year of Christ 1666, the second day of September, eastward from hence, at the distance of 202 feet, about midnight, a most terrible fire broke out, which, driven by a high wind, not only laid waste the parts adjacent, but also places very remote. It consumed 89 churches, the city gates, guild-hall, many public structures, hospitals, schools, libraries, 13,200 dwelling-houses, and 400 streets : out of twenty-six wards, it utterly destroyed fifteen, and left eight others shattered and half burnt. The ruins from the Tower to the Temple Church, and more to the north-east by the city wall, to Holborn Bridge, were 436 acres. To the estates and fortunes of the citizens it was merciless, but to their lives very favorable. That it might in all things resemble the last conflagration of the world, the destruction was sudden; for in a short space of time, the same city was seen most flourishing, and reduced to nothing. Three days after, when this fatal fire had, in the opinion of all, baffled all human counsels and endeavours, it stopped, as it were, by a command from heaven, and was on every side extinguished."
The inscription on the south side is to this effect : “ That the King, commiserating the deplorable state of things, loses no time in providing comfort to his citizens, and ornament to the city; and on the petition of the inhabitants and magistrates being presented to parliament, an act was immediately passed, to restore and rebuild, with all diligence, that which was lost. The churches, and the Cathedral of St. Paul's, to be rebuilt from their foundations, with the utmost magnificence, and every public improvement and convenience to be considered. In three years, the world 'saw finished no less a work than the restoration of London, which must have been supposed the work of a much longer period.”
of the truth or falsehood of the imputations against the Catholics, recorded on the east side of the pedestal, it is now useless to discuss. Let us hope, there never was, nor ever will be, a religious sect that could perpetrate so horrid a deed as the inscription here imputes to the Papists. Mr. Pope, who was himself of the Catholic persuasion, roundly charges this column as being the vehicle of a falsehood.
“ Where London's column, pointing to the skies,
Like a tall bully lifts its head and lies." This Monument has been instrumental in the perpetration of three suicides by precipitation : a weaver, in 1750; John Cradock, a baker, in 1788 ; and Lyon Levy, a merchant, in 1810.
The charge of admission is sixpence; from the iron balcony is an extensive and varied prospect of the metropolis and the adjacent country.'