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hatred with the country : he courts the remonstrators, who were and are averse to him:-Chancellor Loudon lives like an outlaw about Athole, his lands comprised for debt, under a general very great disgrace :-Marischal, Rothes, Eglinton, and his three sons, Crawford, Lauderdale, and others, prisoners in England, and their lands all either sequestrate or forfaulted, and gifted to English soldiers; Balmerino suddenly dead, and his son, for public debt, comprisings, and captions, keeps not the causey (dare not appear in public] :—Warriston having refunded much of what he got for places, lives privily, in a hard enough condition, much hated by the most, and neglected by all, except the remonstrants, to whom he is guide. Our criminal judicatories are all in the hands of the English ; our civil courts in their hands also; only some of the remonstrators are adjoined with them. ... The commissariat and sheriff's courts are all in the hands of the English soldiers, with the adjunction in some places of some few remonstrants. Strong garrisons in Leith, Edinburgh town and castle, Glasgow, Ayr, Dumbarton, Stirling, Linlithgow, Perth, Dundee, Burnt Island, Dunnotter, Aberdeen, Inverness, Inverary [Argyle's own town), Dunstaffnage, &c. ?

“ Of a long time no man in the whole isle did mute; all were lulled up in a lethargic fear and despair. ... But behold inward division doth hazard all at the very beginning. The irreconcileable discords of Argyle and Hamilton had undone the isle, and almost both the families. ... So for the time the case of our land is most sad. ... Being called the other week to confer with the brethren of Edinburgh, I was comforted to find all that met fully of my sense both about prayer for the king [the resolutioners persisted in naming the king in their public prayers, for which they suffered many hardships both from the head of the kirk and also from the remonstrators), and affairs of our divided synod, divided presbytery, troubled college, and all else we spoke of. But it was a sad sight to see the general affliction at the proclamation of the protector of the act of union, the act of forfaultry, and deep fining of so many, the preparation of Monk by sea and land presently to swallow up the northern (royalist] party, destitute of all hope of the oft promised foreign supplies as commou fame surmised. As our miseries (without a kingdom wholly, without any judicatories to count of of our own, without a church well near) are great, so we expect they shall increase, and the next heavy dint (blow] shall fall on the chief of the mivistry. At

| Baillie's Letters, iii. 248.

once it will not be safe to have any audible complaints of these things, either to God or man?."

1655.—The contention between the two factions had convinced themselves of the fatal consequences that were likely to follow; and therefore a conference was proposed between delegates from both sides for a general union with the remonstrators, “by an overture of oblivion of by-gones.” Neither party had any good will to this union, it was only necessity that drove them to it, and the remonstrators were as rigid in their proposals as ever, “ for so long as Warriston and Mr. James Guthrie did guide that party, there could no peace be possible.” The resolutioners continued to pray for the king, though it was contrary to law, and made eren penal; but the remonstrants rejected the king and all other malignants; and it appears that the communion had not been celebrated in Edinburgh “for a number of years.” At this meeting for the proposed union, MR. JAMES SHARP was a delegate on the resolutioner side, and proposed that a deputation should wait on Cromwell to negociate with him for permisson to remember the king in their prayers, on promising to live peaceably under him; but the proposal was not agreed to. “For church matters," says Baillie?, “there is no ecclesiastic government at all we can hear of; yet the hand of power is not heavy on any for matters of religion, no, not on quakers, who are open railers against the protector's person; yca, we hear of little trouble of papists, who grow much in the north of Scotland more than these eighty years, without any control 3.” The dread of Cromwell's vengeance induced the resolutiopers to drop the king's name out of their prayers, and Baillie now generally calls him “ Charles Stewart.” At the same time Gillespie, Warriston, and some of that faction, drew up a new covenant, of a still more democratic and malignant tendency than the original one, under which they meant to place all the godly;" but this was quashed by the vigorous arm of the English council. “Our arm here is broken for all discipline, most by our dissenting brethren running to a schism. Popery increases more than these seventy years.” The “schismatic faction," as Baillie calls the remonstrators, made an effort to constitute five or six of their own number as a commisson of the Assembly, “with full jurisdiction over all our land, to put in and out of the ministry whom they think fit.” Against this horrible tyranny, presbyteries and synods protested; but the schismatics ap. pealed to Cromwell, who discountenanced the scheme 4.

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“Upon the reduction,” says Dr. Skinner,“ of the highlands, there being now no enemy in arms in Scotland, general Monk found himself at liberty to inspect the civil affairs of the country. And because the covenanting clergy had grown so insolent in their power and influence over the government and people, a particular care was used to abate their rigour. They had, indeed, the undisturbed use of their kirks and preaching during general Monk's command, but were not permitted the liberty of making reflections upon their superiors or the government, unto which, by the complexion of their religion, or the pragmatical spirit of the clergy, they are greatly inclined. The power of excommunication, and the consequents upon it, which was the palladium of presbyterianism, was wholly taken from them. Their presbyteries were, indeed, connived at, but their General Assemblies were disturbed and forbidden. So that they who some years before, in the height and ruffle of their religious zeal, being abetted by their party in England, had the confidence to outlaw the late king, when he forbade their Assemblies, were now so reduced and baffled by the English army, that they would have dissolved any of their conventions at the command of a corporal! Nor were the nobility and gentry permitted to wear swords, to ride on a horse of value, to prosecute their old animosities among themselves, nor to exercise any arbitrary and violent practices towards their inferiors and servants.” Under his equitable command peace was universal, and its effects, trade and prosperity; for his army was punctually paid from the forced contributions on the inhabitants, “ so that the soldiers being well paid were enabled to discharge their quarters duly, and the money did so universally circulate through the country, that there was never known so much ready coin in Scotland, as during general Monk's command there. He had formed his army to a very exact discipline, so that nothing was more rare than to hear of any mutinies among themselves, or depredations on the people. Insomuch, that though Monk continued among them to secure their subjection, yet they had a great opinion of his generosity and justice; and so much kindness for his soldiers, during a long and peaceable neighbourhood together, that they looked upon them no otherwise than as natives of the place, or a part of their country; and as guardians rather of their safety and liberty, than instruments of their servitude and subjection?.”

1656.—Through his intimacy with lord Broghill, Mr. Sharp

i Dr. Skinner's Life of General Monk, Duke of Albemarle, by the Rev. W. Webster, M.A., Curate of St. Dunstan's in the West, pp. 64, 65-69.

was appointed a professor in the old college of St. Andrews, and, Baillie adds, “1 am glad he is in it or any other, where he is contented; for indeed he is the most serviceable man our church now has : but I am not yet satisfied of his accepting of that place on the English command 1.” Division and contention increased, and the remonstrators made another effort to establish their commission of the kirk, “ to purge and plant all Scotland, with the English allowance to them, as the godly party, one of the vilest, most shameful, and tyrannical tricks that ever was heard of in any church in any time.” To prevent their success, the resolutioners sent up Mr. Sharp in company with lord Broghill with instructions to give Cromwell a right impression of the disposition and of the intention of the kirk to live peaceably and inoffensively under the present governmentto clear and make manifest the groundless arrogancy of the remonstrators in assuming to themselves the name of the godly party of the ministry; and that the aspersion of insufficiency, scandalousness, and corruption,cast by them upon the generality of the resolutioner ministry, is most uncharitable, unjust, and false. To desire that the government of the kirk be allowed to run in Assemblies, synods, and presbyteries; and the discipline to be permitted to be exercised by the judicatures of the kirk according to the order therein established 2. How subdued, calm, and rational the moderate party now appear before the mighty conqueror, and how different their attitude now to what they assumed with their sovereign of conceding memory, when they appeared before him with a remonstrance in one hand, and the sword in the other !

THE REMONSTRATOR$ also sent up the fierce and intractable Guthrie, who had cursed the king to his face, with the following instructions :-“]. That your highness will please to give warrant for a commission to be issued to such persons of ability and soundness, who understand the affairs of the kirk, as your highness shall think fit, who may have and exercise the power which was heretofore in the commission of the plantation of kirks in that nation : and that the said commissioners may be authorised and required to dispose of the public maintenance according to the rules and acts of uncontroverted Assemblies of the church and laws of that land before the year 1651. 2. That a particular visitation may be, consisting of an equal number of both judgments, of approved godliness and zeal for the work of reformation : whereof the one half to be agreed

Baillie's Letters, iii. 316.

• Ibid. iü. 324, App. 568, 572.

upon by those who are for the public resolutions, and the other half by the remonstrators, for planting and purging of ministers and elders, and for composing of present and future divisions in presbyteries and congregations. 3. That there be also a general committee of delegates from the several synods, of an equal number of both judgments . . . . without whose previous advice and consent the respective synods may not reverse any thing done by the aforesaid visitations 1.".

1657.-CROMWELL gave the antagonist parties an audience, and became so impatient at the length of Guthrie's speech, that it was with some difficulty that lord Broghill prevailed on him to listen to the other's reply. Mr. Sharp then adroitly turned Guthrie's arguments against himself, and gave such a rational account of the resolutioners and their principles, that the protector was satisfied that they were the most worthy of his support. This dexterous defeat of the remonstrators' designs so rankled in Guthrie's breast, from which it was transferred to the whole faction, that it laid the foundation of that most unchristian and atrocious enmity which they have ever since entertained towards Mr. Sharp 2. Baillie communicated to Mr. Ashe the distress that his party suffered from the exorbitant ambition of the remonstrators; and said they had sent up to the protector their three grand leaders,“to supplicate for a liberty to oppress our poor church, contrary to all reason, conscience, and law. .... Our brethren finding that Mr. Sharp's representations had marred all they thought to have obtained, by letters and by their Independent agents, they have openly sent up the chief of their party to desire by the great favour they have themselves every one of them with the protector, and divers about him, a commission to do by force what we could not yield to them with our consent. Their great plea will be, that the government of our corrupt church should be put into the hands of them who are the godly party, till the church be well purged. .... This much I thought fit to signify to you, and a few which you and Mr. Calamy think meet to acquaint with it. Mr. Sharp can fully and will faithfully report the truth of every particular. ... Our distress now is great, we desire your compassion, your prayers to God for us, and your countenance to our cause, when you know it may profit us and not hurt yourselves. ... If, by your countenance and counsel to Mr. Sharp, or by your dealings with your friends about the

| Baillie's Letters - Appendix, 573. * Author's Life of Archbishop Sharp, 12-14.

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