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able accumulated adopted advantage agricultural amount bank benefit borrowers British called capital causes classes colonies competition cost course currency custom debt demand determined diminished distribution duty economical effects employed England English equal example exchange exist exports fact foreign former give given gold greater hands imported increase industry interest invested issue kind labour land latter least less levied limited loans machinery manufacture material means metals moral natural necessary notes object occupied operation ordinary origin paid particular persons population possessed possible practice present production profit protection purchaser quantity rate of interest reason relations rent rise risk rule silver social society soil supply taxation tion trade United wages wealth whole
Page 261 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
Page 156 - Every permanent improvement of the soil, every railway and road, every bettering of the general condition of society, every facility given for production, every stimulus supplied to consumption, raises rent. The landowner sleeps, but thrives.
Page 224 - The only case in which, on mere principles of political economy, protecting duties can be defensible, is when they are imposed temporarily (especially in a young and rising nation) in hopes of naturalizing a foreign industry, in itself perfectly suitable to the circumstances of the country.
Page 145 - The increase of population has not preceded but followed this occupation and cultivation. It is not the pressure of population on the means of subsistence which has led men to cultivate inferior soils, but the fact that these soils being cultivated in another way, or taken into cultivation, an increased population became possible. How could an increased population have stimulated greater labour in agriculture, when agriculture must have supplied the means on which that increased population could...
Page 273 - The power of transferring a tax from the person who actually pays it to some other person varies with the object taxed. A tax on rents cannot be transferred. A tax on commodities is always transferred to the consumer.
Page 61 - ... as contrasted with another which lives on rice or potatoes ; and this quite apart from the prudence or incautiousness of the people. Two instances will illustrate this rule. The Irish famine of 1846 was due to the sudden disease which affected the potato. It was equally severe in the northern parts of Scotland, and particularly in the Western Highlands ; its effects, as we all know, were terrible ; but the same disease affected the same plant in England. That, however, which was distress to the...
Page 67 - ... chiefly in Yorkshire. The fashion has passed away and the demand for the material and the labor has ceased. Thousands of persons once engaged in this production are now reduced to enforced idleness, or constrained to betake themselves to some other occupation. Again, a few years ago, women dressed themselves plentifully with ribbons. This fashion has also changed ; where a hundred yards were sold, one is hardly purchased now, and the looms of a multitude of silk operatives are idle. To quote...
Page 125 - Presuming a hundred men invested twenty shillings each, one shilling each would be due to them at the expiration of the year, as five per cent. interest on their separate investments. They had each done precisely the same as investors, and each was justly entitled to the same reward. But custom is as necessary as capital for the production of profit ; and in contributing this all-important element, they almost necessarily differed from each other. The family income made a difference ; the number...