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four of the ringleaders, he ordered them to be blown from the mouth of a cannon,—a fate which they met with intrepidity. No disposition to mutiny was thenceforth manifested. Monro then marched against Sujah Dowlah, whom he found strongly intrenched at Buxar on the Soane. The difficulty of attacking the enemy in this position was obviated by their advancing against the British at eight in the morning of the 23d October; when, after a combat of three hours, they were defeated. They made their retreat, however, without being pursued to any great distance, only losing a great quantity of stores; and 130 pieces of artillery. The emperor had already made overtures to Major Carnac, which that officer did not think himself authorized to accept; these he now renewed, complaining that Sujah Dowlah treated him with indignity, and detained him as a mere state prisoner. Major Monro gave a favourable answer, and only delayed the final acceptance of his proposals till they should receive the sanction of the presidency, which was readily granted. Even before it arrived, the Mogul had come over with the corps personally attached to him, and begun to march under the banner of his allies.

Sujah Dowlah, having retreated into the interior of his dominions, obtained the aid of a body of Mahrattas under Mulhar Rao, and of Ghazee-ud-Dien, who, as we have seen, were once the most powerful adherents of the Mogul throne. With these auxiliaries he hoped to make a stand against the victorious English. Sir Robert Fletcher, however, who held the temporary command, laid siege to Allahabad, which surrendered as soon as a breach had been effected. Major, now General Carnac, who then succeeded, advanced immediately to attack the army of the vizier, which, with scarcely an effort, was completely dispersed; whereupon that prince was obliged to abandon all his dominions.

The British had now certainly made one of the most splendid campaigns which occur in the annals of any nation. They had gained five victories against much superior forces; they had reduced every strong place which attempted to oppose them; they had vanquished the Mogul emperor and all his principal feudatories; and in short, had made themselves the virtual masters of the great central CLIVE RETURNS TO INDIA.

plain of India. Various opinions, however, prevailed as to the best mode of improving these important triumphs. Meer Jaffier had died, partly it should seem of vexation at not having been able to meet the enormous pecuniary demands of the English rulers. The council after some hesitation filled his place with his son, Nujeem-ul-Dowlah, a youth of twenty, whom they reduced, however, to a much more dependent situation than his predecessors. They took upon themselves the whole defence of the province, and consequently kept in their hands the entire military force; assuming, at the same time, an extensive control over the internal administration. Meantime the directors at home, amid the triumphs which had crowned their arms, felt considerable uneasiness respecting the state of their Indian possessions. They were alarmed by the successive quarrels with Meer Jaffier and Cossim Ali, by the extensive wars in which they were involved, and by the rapacious and irregular conduct of their servants, civil and military. This last evil they imputed in a great measure to the profusion and corruption which pervaded every department. A statesman of comprehensive and vigorous character seemed wanting to place their affairs in the East on a stable and tranquil footing, as well as to introduce order and regularity into the various branches of so extended an administration. With this view, their attention was directed to the same person who had been the real founder of their dominions; and Lord Clive, about three years after his return, was nominated a second time to the supreme command of the British provinces in India. His lordship arrived at Calcutta early in the year 1765; but we shall reserve till another occasion our notice of his internal regulations, and proceed at present to record those measures by which he achieved the farther extension of the company's territory. Sujah Dowlah, though defeated in successive battles, and driven even beyond his frontier, still possessed energy and resources. Having collected his scattered troops, and obtained a reinforcement from the Mahrattas, he formed an army with which he again ventured to face Major Carnac. At Calpy, however, he was completely routed, and compelled to fly precipitately with great loss across the Jumna. Considering his cause Vol. II.—D

r as altogether desperate, he repaired to the camp of the English, and threw himself entirely upon their mercy. Ho had been strongly urged, and high offers were even made to induce him to bring with him Cossim Ali; but a deep sense of honour, not usual in an eastern potentate, determined him not to betray a person who had sought and received his protection. He allowed him and a German, Sumroo, his associate in the work of blood, to seek shelter in the countries bordering on the Indus. Thus Carnac had at once in his camp two princes holding the highest lank in India, and the direct representatives of an empire lately the most splendid and powerful in the world.

Lord Clive, on receiving this intelligence, immediately repaired to the British encampment at Allahabad, where these two illustrious personages awaited his decision upon their fate. It had been determined, in consequence of the obstinate hostility displayed by Sujah Dowlah, to deprive him of his territories and bestow them on the emperor. But his lordship, on personal acquaintance, conceived so favourable an opinion of the former, and judged him likely to be so much more effective as an ally and formidable as an enemy than the young Mogul, that he determined to restore him to his dominions, by whose inhabitants he was greatly beloved. To the emperor, the districts of Corah and Allahabad were assigned; and he agreed, that is, was compelled, to grant to the company the dewannee or collection of the revenue, including in fact the entire sovereignty, in the fine provinces of Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa; in return for which he was to receive annually twenty-six lacks of rupees. Soon after, Nujeem-nl-Dowlah, the nominal subahdar of these provinces, was obliged to retire on a pension of forty-two lacks. Lord Clive then boasted that the revenues of the ceded territory would exceed 250 lacks of rupees, which, after the above deductions and the liberal allowance of 60 lacks for the expenses of government, would leave 122 lacks of clear gain to the company. These fmancial anticipations were very imperfectly realized; but it was difficult for England not to be dazzled with this splendid series of victory, by which her possessions, which ten years before had included only an almost defenceless fort at the mouth of the Ganges, now extended over ail Company's Sovereignty Established. 38

the finest portion of that vast region. The most valuable part of the great central plain of India, westward as far as the Jumna, was either in the immediate possession or under the entire control of the British nation. CHAPTER II. War with Mysore. Formation of the Kingdom of Mysore—Influence ofthe Ministers Deoraj and Nunjeraj—Hyder—His Parentage—His early Destitutipn—Begins to distinguish himself—Mode in which he forms a Body of Adherents —Commands at Dindigul—His power augmented—Violence of Nunjeraj, who is reduced to Distress—Hyder relieves and then supplants him—His own Danger—Extricates himself, and becomes complete Master of Mysore—Conquest of Bednore—Invasion by the Mahrattas —Conquest of Calicut—The English join a Confederacy against him —The Mahrattas make Peace—Nizam joins Hyder against the English—They invade the Carnatic—Threaten Madras—Battle of Trinomalee—Nizam quits the Alliance—Invasion of Mysore—Successes of Hyder—He overruns the Carnatic—Again threatens Madras—Conclusion of Peace—Another great Inroad of the Mahrattas—Hyder concludes a Treaty with them, and makes further Conquests—His Resentment against the English—Weak conduct of the Madras Government —Hyder invades and desolates the Carnatic—Faie of Colonel Baillie's Detachment—Sir Eyre Coote sent from Calcutta—He gains several Advantages—Loss of Colonel Bralhwaite's Detachment—Negotiations —Operations on the Western Coast—Death of Hyder—Tippoo succeeds—Dissensions in the Madras Government—Death of Sir Eyre Coote—Peace between England and France—Bednore surrenders to General Mathews—Retaken by the Sultan—Siege of Mangalore—Peace with Tippoo.


In the general breaking-up of the Mogul empire and its great viceroyalties, India was reduced almost to a state of anarchy. Any bold adventurer who could summon round him the warlike and predatory bands with which that region abounded, might aspire to rule over extensive districts, several of which were entitled to the rank of kingdoms. Among such communities a conspicuous place was held by Mysore, the territory of which forms one of the most remarkable of those elevated table-lands that diversify the southern provinces. It extends more than half-way from sea to sea, closely approaching the Malabar coast on one side, and on the other reaching to the border of the Carnatic. A circuit of lofty hills, forming a barrier round the country, raise its general surface to the height of almost 3000 feet; a happy circumstance, which secures for it a

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