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XIV. Clearness of conceptions in the understanding

essential to purity in the will: duty of commu-

nicating knowledge.
XV. Right use of metaphysic reasoning: principles

founded in reason the sole root of prudence: dis-

tinctive powers of the human mind.
XVI. Supremacy of the reason : power given by acting

on principle: falsehood and unworthiness of
modern principles in taste, morals, and religion.

pp. 95–118.

I. Voltaire and Erasmus : Rousseau and Luther.
II. Luther's visions in the Warteburg.

III. Theory to explain Luther's visions : apostrophe on

Thomas Wedgwood.

V. Do. continued: the reason and the understanding

distinguished: their mutual and necessary rela-
tion: eduction of the conscience.


obins: injudicious treatment of the former by

the latter.

*FRIEND! were an author privileged to name his own judge, -in addition to moral and intellectual competence I should look round for some man, whose knowledge and opinions had for the greater part been acquired experimentally; and the practical habits of whose life had put him on his guard with respect to all speculative reasoning, without rendering him insensible to the desirableness of principles more secure than the shifting rules and theories generalized from observations merely empirical, or unconscious in how many departments of knowledge, and with how large a portion even of professional men, such principles are still a desideratum. I would select, too, one who felt kindly, nay, even partially, toward me; but one whose partiality had its strongest foundations in hope, and more prospective than retrospective would make him quick-sighted in the detection, and unreserved in the exposure, of the deficiencies and defects of each present work, in the anticipation of a more developed future. In you, honored friend! I have found all these requisites combined and realized : and the improvement, which these essays have derived from your judgment and judicious suggestions, would, of itself, have justified me in accompanying them with a public acknowledgment of the same. But knowing, as you can not but know, that I owe in great measure the power of having written at all to your medical skill, and to the characteristic good sense which directed its exertion in my behalf; and whatever I may

* Dedication to the second edition.-Ed.


have written in happier vein to the influence of your society and to the daily proofs of your disinterested attachment ;—knowing, too, in how entire a sympathy with your feelings in this respect the partner of your name has blended the affectionate regards of a sister or daughter with almost a mother's watchful and unwearied solicitudes alike for my health, interest, and tranquillity;

-you will not, I trust, be pained,—you ought not, I am sure, to be surprised—that

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