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THOMAS DE HALES (bef. 1300)
A LUVE RON 1

A LOVE LETTER
A mayde Cristes ? me bit yorne 3

A maid of Christ doth plead with me That ich hire + wurche 5 a luv ron;

To write her a letter of love to-day, For hwan heo myhte best ileorne?

From which she can learn most readily To taken on 8 other sotho lefmon 10

To take another true love, i'fay, That treowest were of alle berne,"

Who faithfulest of all shall be, And best wyte cuthe 12 a freo wymmon. And best can guard a lady gay. Ich hire nule 13 nowiht 14 werne,15

No wise will I deny her plea, Ich hire wule 16 teche as ic con. 8 But I will teach her as I may.

8 Mayde, her 17 thu myht 18 biholde

O maiden, here thou mayst behold This worldes luve nys 19 bute o res,20

This earthly love is but a race,
And is byset so fele-volde, 21

And is beset so many fold,
Vikel,22 and frakel,23 and wok,24 and les.25 Fickle and false and weak and base.
Theos theines 26 that her weren bolde

Those knights that here were once so bold, Beoth aglyden so 28 wyndes bles; 29

Like wind have glided from their place; Under molde 30 hi liggeth 31 colde

Under mould they are lying cold, And faleweth 28 doth medewe gres. 16 And wither as doth the meadow grass. 16

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Nis non 33 so riche, ne non so freo, 34
That he ne schal heonne

sone away. Ne may hit never his waraunt beo,

Gold ne seolver, vouh 36 ne gray;
Ne beo he no the swift,38 ne may he fleo,

Ne weren 39 his lif enne 40 day.
Thus is thes world, as thu mayht 18 seo,

Al so 4 the schadewe that glyt away. 32
This world fareth hwilynde.43

Hwenne 44 on cumeth, an other goth; That 45 wes bi-fore nu is bihynde,

That 45 er 46 was leof 47 nu hit is loth ; 48
For-thi 49 he doth as the blynde

That in this world his luve doth.50
Ye mowen iseo 51 the world aswynde; 39

That wouh goth forth, abak that soth.54
Theo 55 luve that ne may her abyde,

Thu treowest 56 hire 57 myd muchel wouh,58 Al so 59 hwenne hit schal to-glide, 60

Hit is fals, and mereuh, and frouh,62 And fromward 63 in uychon tide. 64

Hwile hit lesteth, is seorewe 65 inouh;

la love rune (or letter) 2 of Christ's 3 begs me eagerly herb make 6 whereby she ? learn 8 an 'true 10 lover 11 could protect 13 will

not at all 15 refuse 16 will 17 here mayst 19 is not 20 a race 21 in so many ways 22 fickle > ugly 24 weak 25 false 26 these nobles 27 are passed away as 29 breath 30 the earth 31 they lie 52 wither 33 there is none 34 free, generous 35 hence

There's none so rich and none so free

That hence he shall not soon away.
Nothing may ever his warrant be,

Gold, nor silver, nor ermine gay;
Be he ever so swift, he may not flee,

Nor guard his life a single day.
Thus is this world, as thou mayst see,

Like as the shadow that glides away. 32
This world fareth like the wind,

One thing gone, another here;
What was before is now behind,

What now is loath before was dear;
Therefore he doth as doth the blind,

Who sets his love on this world's gear.
The world is vanishing, ye shall find; 39

Evil goes forward, truth to the rear.
The love that may not here abide,

Thou art wrong to trust it now;
Away from thee that love will glide,

Capricious and frail and false of vow,
And hasting away at every tide.

The while it lasts, 'tis sorrow enow;
36 ermine 37 vair 38 be he never so swift 39 protect

a single " just as 42 glides 43 swiftly when 45 what 46 formerly 47 dear 48 hated 49 therefore

places 51 may see 52 vanish 53 the wrong 54 the true 55 the 56 trustest 57 it 58 very wrongly even so a pass away 61 delicate 62 capricious 63 hasting away 64 at every time 65 sorrow 66 enough

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Hwer is Paris and Heleyne,

That weren so bryht and feyre on bleo; 6 Amadas and Dideyne,

Tristram, Yseude and alle theo ; 8 Ector, with his scharpe meyne,

And Cesar, riche of worldes feo ? 10 Heo beoth iglyden 11 ut of the reyne So 13 the schef 14 is of the cleo.15

72 Hit is of heom 16 al so hit nere;

Of heom 16 me haveth 18 wunder itold, Nere hit reuthe 19 for to here

Hw hi 20 were with pyne aquold, 21 And what hi tholeden 22 alyve here.

Al is heore 23 hot iturnd to cold. Thus is thes world of false fere ; 24 Fol 25 he is the 26 on hire is bold.

80 Theyh 27 he were so riche mon 28

As Henry ure 29 kyng, And al so veyr

as Absalon That nevede 31 on eorthe non evenyng, 32 Al were sone his prute 33 agon,

Hit nere 34 on ende 1 wurth on heryng.3 Mayde, if thu wilnest 36 after leofmon,37

Ich teche the enne 38 treowe king. 88 A! swete, if thu iknowe 39

The gode thewes 40 of thisse childe! He is feyr and bryht on heowe, 41

Of glede chere, 12 of mode 43 mylde, Of lufsum lost,44 of truste treowe,

Freo of heorte, of wisdom wilde; Ne thurhte the never rewe, 46

Myhtestu do the 47 in his hylde.48 He is ricchest mon of londe;

So 13 wide so mon speketh with muth, Alle heo 49 beoth 50 to his honde

Est and west, north and suth.
Henri, king of Engelonde,

Of hym he halt 51 and to hym buhth, 52
Mayde, to the he send 53 his sonde, 54
And wilneth 55 for to beo the cuth. 56

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Paris and Helen where are they

That were so bright and fair of face? Amadas and Ydoine gay,

Tristram, Yseult, and all that race? Hector, strong in battle array,

And Cæsar, great in worldly place? They all have glided from earth away

As sheaf from the hill, that leaves no trace. 72 They're now as though they never were here;

Of them are many wonders told, Were it not pity for one to hear

How they were tortured and died of old, And what they suffered in life while here.

All their heat is turned to cold. Thus all this world doth false appear; Foolish is he who in it is bold.

80 Although he were a man as strong

As Henry is, our gracious King, And fair as Absalom the young,

Whose match no man on earth could bring, His pride were soon not worth a song,

In value less than a red herring. O maid, if thou wilt love full long, I will show thee a loyal king.

88 Ah, my sweet, if thou but knew

The blessed virtues of this Lord ! He is fair and bright of hue,

Both glad of cheer and mild of word, Of lovesome grace, of trust most true,

Free-hearted, rich in wisdom's hoard; Never shouldst thou have need to rue,

If thou but trust thee in his ward. He is the strongest man in land,

As far as men can speak with mouth, And all are liegemen in his hand,

East and west, north and south. Henry, King of English land,

Doth hold of him and to him boweth. O maid, he sends thee his command,

His will to be thy friend avoweth. 104

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MIDDLE ENGLISH LYRICS

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ALYSOUN (C. 1300) Bytuene Mersh 1 and Averil,

Betwixt old March and April gay, When spray biginneth to springe,

When sprays begin to spring, The lutel foul ? hath hire wyl

The little bird in her own way On hyre lud 3 to synge.

Follows her will to sing. Ich libbe * in love longinge

But I must live in love longing For semlokest 5 of alle thinge.

For one who is the fairest thing. He ở may me blisse bringe;

'Tis she who may to bliss me bring, Icham' in hire baundoun.

For she my love háth won. An hendy hap ichabbe yhent,

A blessed fortune is my lot, Ichot,10 from hevene it is me sent,

'Tis sent to me from Heaven, I wot, From alle wymmen mi love is lent 11

To other women my love turns not And lyht 12 on Alysoun.

But lights on Alison. On heu 13 hire her is fayr ynoh,

Fair enough in hue her hair, Hire browe broune, hire eye blake,

Her brows are brown, and black her eyne. With lossum chere 14 he on me loh! 15

She smiled on me with lovesome air ; With middel 16 smal, and wel ymake.17 Trim is her waist and neat and fine. Bote 18 he.me wolle 19 to hire take,

Unless thou'lt take me to be thine, Forte buen 20 hire owen make, 21

Thy own dear love, O lady mine, Longe to lyuen ichulle 22 forsake,

Of longer living shall I pine, And feye 23 fallen adoun.

By death shall be undone. An hendy hap, etc.

A blessed fortune is my lot, etc. Nihtes-when y wende 24 and wake;

Often at night I toss and wake; Forthi 25 myn wonges 26 waxeth won.

For this my cheeks are pale and wan. Levedi,27 al for thine sake

Lady, 'tis all for thy dear sake Longinge is ylent 28 me on. 25 Longing has fallen me upon.

25 In world nis non so wytermon,29

In world is none so wise a man That al hire bounte 30 telle con.31

That all her goodness tell he can. Hire swyre 32 is whittore then the swon, Her neck is whiter than the swan; And feyrest may 33 in toune.

My heart 'she has undone. An hendi, etc.

A blessed fortune is my lot, etc. Icham for wowyng al forwake, 34

Weary as water in weir I wake, Wery so water in wore,35

And woo thee more and more, Lest eny reve 36 me my make. 2

Lest some one rob me of my make. 21 Ychabbe y-yir yore,

For I have heard of yore, Betere is tholien whyle sore 38

35 Better to suffer a while full sore, 35 Then 39 mournen evermore.

Than go a-mourning evermore. Geynest under gore, 40

Gayest under gore, Herkne to my roun! 41

Hear my orison ! An hendi, etc.

A blessed fortune is my lot, etc. 1 March 2 little bird ' in her language * I live 29 there is no so wise man 30 goodness

can 32 neck 5 most beautiful she 'I am 8 power 'a pleas 33 maid 34 I am for wooing all worn with watchant fortune I have got 10 I know departed ing 35 weary as water in weir 36 take away from 12 alighted 13 in color 14 with loving look 15 laughed 37 I have heard long ago 38 it is better to endure 16 waist 17 made 18 unless 19 will 20 (for) to be hurt for a while 39 than 40 most gracious one alive 21 mate 22 I will 23 ready to die 24 at night-time I (in clothing) 41 secret turn 25 therefore 26 cheeks 27 lady 28 descended

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SPRINGTIME (c. 1300) Lenten ys come with love to toune,

With love is come to town the spring, With blosmen and with briddes roune;2 With blossoms and birds' whispering; That al this blisse bryngeth.

That all this bliss now bringeth. Dayes-eyes in this 3 dales;

There are daisies in the dales, Notes suete 4 of nyhtegales;

5 Pipings sweet of nightingales, Uch foul song singeth.”

His song each warbler singeth. The threstercoc him threteth oo; 6

The throstlecock doth strutting go; Away is huere ? wynter woo

Away is all their winter woe When woderoue 8 springeth.

When up the woodruff springeth. This 3 foules singeth ferly fele,10

A thousand birds are singing gay And wlyteth 11 on huere wynter wele,12 Of winter's sadness passed away, That al the wode ryngeth.

Till all the woodland ringeth. The rose rayleth 13 hire rode,14

The rose puts on her ruddy hood, The leves on the lyhte wode

The leaves within the greening wood Waxen al with wille.15

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With a will are growing. The mone mandeth 16 hire bleo,17

The moon is brightening her face; The lilie is lossom 18 to seo,

Here is the lily in her grace, The fenyl and the fille ;

With thyme and fennel blowing; Wowes this wilde drakes,20

A-wooing go the wilding drakes, Miles murgeth huere makes ; 21

Beasts are courting now their mates; Ase strem that striketh 22 stille,

The stream is softly flowing; Mody meneth, so doht mo;

Many a wretch bemoans his lot; Ichot ycham on of tho,

I am one of them, I wot, For love that likes ille.25

My love for naught bestowing.

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The moon now mendeth fast her light,
So doth the seemly sun shine bright,

When birds are bravely chaunting;
The dews are falling on the hill ;
For pleas of love in whispers still

Sweethearts are not wanting;
The worm is wooing in the clod;
Women wax now wondrous proud,

Their joy in life a-vaunting.
If love of one I may not know,
This blissful boon I will forego,

Lonely the wild wood haunting.

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The mone mandeth 26 hire lyht,

25 So doth the semly sonne bryht,

When briddes singeth breme ; 27 Deawes donketh 28 the dounes ; 29 Deores with huere derne rounes, Domes forte deme ; 31

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Wormes woweth under cloude ; 32
Wymmen waxeth wounder proude,

So wel hit wol hem seme.
Yef $3 me shal wonte 34 wille of on,
This wunne weole 36 y wole 37 forgon, 35

Ant wyht in wode be fleme.3

1 spring 2 whisper 3 these sweet 5 each bird sings a song the throstle cock threatens ever 7 their 8 woodruff birds 10 wonderfully many cry 12 weal 13 puts on 14 redness 15 vigorously

17 complexion 18 beautiful thyme 20 these wild drakes woo 21 beasts gladden their mates 22 runs 23 the moody man laments, — so do

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UBI SUNT QUI ANTE NOS FUERUNT? (c. 1350)
Were beth 1 they that biforen us weren, Where are they that lived of yore?
Houndes ladden 2 and havekes beren,

Hounds they led and hawks they bore,
And hadden feld and wode?

And held both park and chase. The riche levedies 4 in here 5 bour,

The ladies in their bowers fair, That wereden gold in here 5 tressour,

Who bound with gold their lovely hair, With here brighte rode;? 6 And winsome were of face;

6 Eten and drounken, and maden hem glad; They ate and drank and made them glad; Here lif was al with gamen 8 y-lad,

Their life was all with pleasure led, Men kneleden hem biforen;

Men knelt unto their sway; They beren hem wel swithe heye; 10

They bore themselves full haughty and high; And in a twincling of an eye

And in the twinkling of an eye
Here soules weren forloren.11

Their souls were lost for aye.
Were is that lawhing 12 and that song, Where is that laughing and that song,
That trayling and that proude gong,

That swaggering step that strode along,
Tho havekes 14 and tho houndes?

The hawks and all the hounds? Al that joye is went away,

All that joy is passed away, That wele 15 is comen to weylaway 16

That weal is turned to woe for aye, To manye harde stoundes. 17

To woe that hath no bounds.

18 Here ó paradis they nomen 18 here,19

Their heaven they had ere they did die, And nou they lyen in helle y-fere;

And now together in hell they lie; The fyr hit brennes 21 evere:

The fire it burneth ever. Long is ay, and long is o,

Long is ay! and long is oh! Long is wy, and long is wo;

Long is wy! and long is wo! Thennes ne cometh they nevere.

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Thence escape they never.

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1 where are 2 led 3hawks bore 4 ladies 5 their 6 head-dress 7 complexion 8 pleasure them 10 bore themselves very highlost

12 laughing 13 gait 14 those hawks 15 weal 16 alas
hours 18 took 19 here 20 together 21 burns

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