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And preide hem alle, as sche wel couthe, To grante Eson his ferste youthe.

And prayed them all, as she well could,
To grant Eson his young manhood.

This old Eson was brought forth, lo!
Away she bade all others go,

4060 On peril of what might befall; And with that word then went in all, And left out there alone those two. Gasping and pacing, with much ado, She made her signs full many a one, And said her magic words thereon; So that with spelling of her charms She took Eson in both her arms, And caused him to sleep full fast, And on the herbs him sleeping cast. 4070 The wether black then next she took, And hewed the flesh as doth a cook; On either altar part she laid, And with the charms that she hath said A fire down from the sky did light And made the flesh to burn full bright. But when Medea saw it burn, Anon she leaped and ran in turn The fiery altars all about. There was no beast which goeth out

4080 More wild than she herself seemed there; About her shoulders hung her hair, As though she were out of her mind And turned into another kind. There certain wood lay cleft in twain, Of which the sticks, now and again, She made them in the pits full wet, And in the fiery heat them set; And took the brand with all the blaze, And thrice with it, as in a race,

4090 Ran about Eson as he slept, And then with water which she kept She made a circle round him thrice, And then with fire of sulphur twice. And other things she did, I wot, Which in this place are written not. But, running up and down the ground, She made full many a wondrous sound; Sometimes like unto the cock, Sometimes like the laverock,

4100 Sometimes cackleth as a hen, Sometimes speaketh as do men. And as she made her jargon strange, Her form in sundry wise did change, She seemed no woman but a fay; For with the crafts she did assay She was, as one might say, goddess.

This olde Eson broght forth was tho; 2
Awei sche bad alle othre go,

Upon peril that mihte falle;
And with that word thei wenten alle,
And leften there hem tuo al-one.
And tho sche gan to gaspe and gone,3
And made signes many-on,
And seide hir wordes therupon;
So that with spellinge of hir charmes
Sche took Eson in both hire armes,
And made him forto slepe faste,
And him upon hire herbes caste. 4070
The blake wether tho sche tok,
And hiewh 4 the fleissh, as doth a cok;
On either alter part sche leide,
And with the charmes that sche seide
A fyr doun fro the sky alyhte
And made it forto brenne lyhte.
Bot whan Medea sawh it brenne,
Anon sche gan to sterte and renne 5
The fyri aulters al aboute.
Ther was no beste which goth oute

More wylde than sche semeth ther:
Aboute hir schuldres hyng hir her,
As thogh sche were oute of hir mynde
And torned in an other kynde.?
Tho 2 lay ther certein wode cleft,
Of which the pieces nou and eft 8
Sche made hem in the pettes wete,
And put hem in the fyri hete,
And tok the brond with al the blase,
And thries sche began to rase

Aboute Eson, ther-as' he slepte;
And eft with water, which sche kepte,
Sche made a cercle aboute him thries,
And eft with fyr of sulphre twyes.
Ful many an other thing sche dede,
Which is noght writen in this stede.10
Bot tho ? sche ran so up and doun,
Sche made many a wonder soun,
Somtime lich 11 unto the cock,
Somtime unto the laverock,12
Somtime kacleth as a hen,
Somtime spekth as don the men;
And riht so as hir jargoun strangeth,13
In sondri wise hir forme changeth,
Sche semeth faie 14 and no womman;
For with the craftes that sche can
Sche was, as who seith, a goddesse.


1 could ? then 3 walk 4 hewed 5 run Chung 12 lark 13 becomes strange 14 fairy ? nature now and again where 10 place 11 like

And what hir liste, more or lesse,
Sche dede, in bokes as we finde,
That passeth over manneskinde.?

Bot who that wole of wondres hiere,
What thing sche wroghte in this matiere,
To make an ende of that sche gan,"
Such merveile herde nevere man.

Apointed in the newe mone,
Whan it was time forto done,
Sche sette a caldron on the fyr,
In which was al the hole atir,
Whereon the medicine stod,
Of jus, of water, and of blod,

41 20
And let it buile 4 in such a plit,
Til that sche sawh the spume whyt;
And tho sche caste in rynde 5 and rote,
And sed and flour that was for bote,
With many an herbe and many a ston,
Whereof sche hath ther many on.
And ek Cimpheius the serpent
To hire hath alle his scales lent,
Chelidre hire yaf his addres skin,
And sche to builen caste hem in; 4130
A part ek of the horned oule,
The which men hiere on nyhtes houle;
And of a raven, which was told
Of nyne hundred wynter old,
Sche tok the hed with al the bile; 7
And as the medicine it wile,
Sche tok therafter the bouele 8
Of the seewolf, and for the hele 9
Of Eson, with a thousand mo
Of thinges that sche hadde tho,

4140 In that caldroun togedre as blyve 10 Sche putte; and tok thanne of olyve A drie branche hem with to stere, 11 The which anon gan floure and bere And waxe al freissh and grene ayein. Whan sche this vertu hadde sein, Sche let the leste drope of alle Upon the bare flor doun falle; Anon ther sprong up flour and gras, Where-as the drope falle was,

4150 And wox anon al medwe 12 grene, So that it mihte wel be sene. Medea thanne knew and wiste Hir medicine is forto triste,13 And goth to Eson ther 14 he lay, And tok a swerd was of assay With which a wounde upon his side Sche made, that therout mai slyde

And whatso pleased her, more or less,
She did, as we in books may find,
Deeds that pass skill of human kind. 4110
But whoso will of wonders hear,
What things she wrought by magic clear
To make an end of all her spell,
Of crafts like hers heard no man tell.

Just as the moon had changed to new,
When it was time her task to do,
She laid a cauldron on the fire,
In which was placed the mass entire
Wherein the magic virtues stood
Of juice, of water, and of blood,

And let it boil therein aright
Till she could see the bubbles white;
And then she cast in bark and root,
And seed and flower both to boot,
With many a herb and many a stone,
Whereof she hath there many a one.
And eke Cimpheius, the serpent,
To her hath all his scales now lent,
Chelidre, the adder, gave his skin,
And she to the boiling cast them in; 4130
A part too of the horned owl,
The which men hear at night-time howl;
And of a raven which had told
His full nine hundred winters old
She took the head with all the bill;
And as the medicine it will,
Of sea wolf she the bowel took,
And for the healing did it cook
Of Eson ; -- and a thousand more
Of things that she had still in store

4140 Within that cauldron cast full quick. Of olive then a withered stick She took, to stir that mixture rare. And lo, the stick did flower and bear, And waxed again all fresh and green! When she this virtue well had seen, She let the smallest drop of all Upon the barren earth down fall; At once there sprang up flower and grass, Just where the falling drop did pass, 4150 And waxed at once all meadow-green, So that it clearly might be seen. Medea then full surely knew Her medicine was strong and true; And goes to Eson where he lay, And took a sword of good assay, With which a wound within his side She made, that so thereout may slide


1 that surpasses human nature 2 began 3 equip- 9 healing 10 quickly11 stir 12 meadow 13 trust ment * boil 5 bark remedy 7 bill intestine 14 where 15 proof



The blod withinne, which was old 4159
And sek and trouble and fieble and cold.
And tho sche tok unto his us 1
Of herbes al the beste jus,
And poured it into his wounde;
That made his veynes fulle and sounde.
And tho sche made his wounde clos,
And tok his hand, and up he ros.
And tho sche yaf 2 him drinke a drauhte,
Of which his youthe ayein he cauhte,
His hed, his herte and his visage
Lich ? unto twenty wynter age;

Hise hore heres were away,
And lich unto the freisshe Maii,
Whan passed ben the colde schoures,
Riht so recovereth he his floures.

The blood within him, which was old
And sick and troubled and feeble and cold.
And then she took unto his use
Of all the herbs the potent juice,
And poured it all into his wound,
That made his veins all full and sound;
And then she made his wound to close;
And took his hand, and up he rose.
A draught to drink she gave him then,
From which his youth he caught again,
His head, his heart, and his visage,
Like unto twenty winters' age;

His hoary hairs vanished away;
And like unto the lusty May,
When passed are all the chilling showers,
Right so recovereth he his flowers.


GEOFFREY CHAUCER (1340 ?-1400)


And neigh the dore, ay under shames drede, And so bifel," whan comen was the tyme

Simple of atyr, and debonaire of chere, 181 Of Aperil, whan clothed is the mede 5

With ful assured loking and manere. With newe grene, of lusty Ver 6 the pryme,

This Troilus, as he was wont to gyde And swote 7 smellen floures whyte and rede,

His yonge knightes, ladde hem up and doun In sondry wyses shewede, as I rede,

In thilke 1 large temple on every syde, 185 The folk of Troye hir 8 observaunces olde,

Biholding ay the ladyes of the toun, Palladiones o feste for to holde.


Now here, now there, for no devocioun And to the temple, in al hir 8 beste wyse,

Hadde he to noon, to reven him his reste, In general, ther wente many a wight,

But gan to preyse and lakken whom him To herknen of Palladion the servyse;

leste. 4 And namely, 10 so many a lusty knight, 165

And in his walk full fast he gan to wayten 5 So many a lady fresh and mayden bright,

If knight or squyer of his companye Ful wel arayed, bothe moste 11 and leste,

Gan for to syke, or lete his eyen bayten? Ye,12 bothe for the seson and the feste.

On any woman that he coude aspye; Among thise othere folk was Criseyda,

He wolde smyle, and holden it folye, In widewes habite blak; but nathelees, And seye him thus, “God wot, she slepeth softe Right as our firste lettre is now an A,

For love of thee, whan thou tornest ful ofte. In beautee first so stood she, makelees; 13 Hir goodly looking gladede al the prees. 14

"I have herd told, pardieux, of your livinge, Nas 15 never seyn thing to ben preysed derre,16

Ye lovers, and your lewede 8 observaunces, Nor under cloude blak so bright a sterre 175

And which ' a labour folk han 10 in winninge

Of love, and in the keping whicho douAs was Criseyde, as folk seyde everichoon 17 taunces; That hir bihelden in hir blake wede; 18 And whan your preye is lost, wo and penAnd yet she stood ful lowe and stille alloon,

aunces; Bihinden othere folk, in litel brede,19

() verrey foles ! nyce

12 and blinde be ye; 202

Ther nis 13 not oon can war 14 by other be." I use 2 gave 3 like it happened 5 meadow 6 spring sweet 8their 9 of the Palladium 10 espe 1 that same ? take away 3 blame oit pleased cially 11 greatest 12 yea 13 peerless 14 crowd 15 was 5 observe sigh ? feast 8 silly 'what sort of 10 have not 16 more dearly 17 every one 18 garment 19 space 11 perplexities 12 foolish 13 is not 14 cautious







And with that word he gan cast up the browe, But as she sat allone and thoughte thus, 610 Ascaunces, "Lo! is this nought wysly Thascryl aroos at skarmish al with-oute, spoken?”

And men cryde in the strete, “See, Troilus At which the god of love gan loken rowe 2 Hath right now put to flight the Grekes Right for despyt, and shoop 3 for to ben route !” 2 wroken;

207 With that gan al hir meynee 3 for to shoute, He kidde 5 anoon his bowe nas not broken; “A! go we see, caste up the latis * wyde; 615 For sodeynly he hit him at the fulle; For thurgh this strete he moot 5 to palays And yet as proud a pekok can he pulle! 6

ryde; O blinde world, O blinde entencioun ! ? “For other wey is fro the yate 6 noon, How ofte falleth al theffect 8 contraire Of Dardanus, ther? open is the cheyne.” Of surguidrye and foul presumpcioun; With that come he and al his folk anoon For caught is proud, and caught is debonaire. An esy pas rydinge, in routes o tweyne, 620 This Troilus is clomben on the staire, 215 Right as his happy day was, sooth to seyne, And litel weneth that he moot descenden, For which men say, may nought disturbed be But al-day 10 falleth thing that foles ne That shal bityden of necessitee. wenden. 11

This Troilus sat on his baye stede, As proude Bayard ginneth for to skippe Al armed, save his heed, ful richely, 625 Out of the wey, so priketh him his corn, And wounded was his hors, and gan to blede, Til he a lash have of the longe whippe, On whiche he rood a pas, ful softely; Than thenketh he, “Though I praunce al But swych a knightly sighte, trewely, biforn,

As was on him, was nought, with-outen faile, First in the trays, ful fat and newe shorn, To loke on Mars, that god is of batayle. 630 Yet am I but an hors, and horses lawe I moot endure, and with my feres 13 drawe.” So lyk a man of armes and a knight

He was to seen, fulfild of heigh prowesse;

For bothe he hadde a body and a might

To doon that thing, as wel as hardinesse; * *

And eek to seen him in his gere 10 him dresse, With this he 14 took his leve, and hoom he

So fresh, so yong, so weldy ll semed be, 636

It was an heven up-on him for to see. wente; And lord, how he was glad and wel bigoon ! 15

His helm to-hewen 12 was in twenty places, Criseyde aroos, no lenger she ne stente 16

That by a tissew heng, his bak bihinde, But straught in-to hir closet wente anoon,

His sheld to-dasshed was with swerdes and And sette here 17 doun as stille as any stoon,


640 And every word gan up and doun to winde,

In which men mighte many an arwe finde That he hadde seyd, as it com hir to minde;

That thirled 13 hadde horn and nerf 14 and

rinde; 15 And wex somdel 18 astonied in hir thought, Right for the newe cas; but whan that she

And ay the peple cryde, “Here cometh our

joye, Was ful avysed,19 tho 20 fond she right nought And, next his brother, holdere up of Troye!” Of peril, why she oughte afered be. 606 For man may love, of possibilitee,

For which he wex a litel reed for shame, 645 A womman so his herte may to-breste, 21

When he' the peple up-on him herde cryen, And she nought love ayein, but-if hir leste. 22

That to biholde it was a noble game,

How sobreliche he caste doun his yen. 1 as if to say a cruel 3 planned 4 avenged 5 made known pluck ? purpose result' overweening

Cryseyda gan al his chere aspyen, 10 constantly 11 did not expect 12 food 13 fellows 1 the shout 2 crowd 3 household 4 lattice 5 must 14 i.e. Pandarus 15 happy 16 delayed 17 her 18 some 6 gate ? where 8 chain companies 10 gear, equipwhat 19 had considered thoroughly 20 then 21 burst ment 11 active 12 cut through 13 pierced 14 sinew 22 unless it please her







And leet 1 so softe it in hir herte sinke, 650 And after thi.. the story telleth us,
That to hir-self she seyde, “Who yaf? me That she him yaf' the faire baye stede,
drinke?" 3

The which she ones wan of Troilus;

And eek ? a broche (and that was litel nede) For of hir owene thought she wex al reed, That Troilus was, she yaf 1 this Diomede. Remembringe hir right thus, "Lo, this is he And eek, the bet 3*from sorwe him to releve, Which that myn uncle swereth he moot be She made him were * a pencel 5 of hir sleve. deed,

1043 But 5 I on him have mercy and pitee;" 655 I finde eek in the stories elles-where, And with that thought, for pure a-shamed, Whan through the body hurt was Diomede she

Of 6 Troilus, tho weep she many a tere, Gan in hir heed to pulle, and that as faste, Whan that she saugh his wyde woundes Whyl he and al the peple for-by paste. ;



And that she took to kepen him good hede; And gan to caste and rolen up and doun And for to hele him his sorwes smerte, With-inne hir thought his excellent prowesse, Men seyn, I not,' that she yaf him hir herte. And his estat, and also his renoun, 661 His wit, his shap, and eek his gentillesse; But trewely, the story telleth us, 1051 But most hir favour was for 7 his distresse Ther made never womman more wo Was al for hir, and thoughte it was a routhe 8 Than she, whan that she falsed Troilus. To sleen swich oon, if that he mente trouthe. She seyde, “Allas ! for now is clene a-go

My name of trouthe in love, for ever-mo! Now mighte some envyous jangle thus,

For I have falsed oon the gentileste

1056 “This was a sodeyn love, how mighte it be That ever was, and oon the worthieste! That she so lightly lovede Troilus Right for the firste sighte; ye, pardee?" “Allas, of me, un-to the worldes ende, Now who-so seyeth so, mote 10 he never Shal neither been y-writen nor y-songe thee ! 11

670 No good word, for thise bokes wol me shende.10 For everything, a ginning 12 hath it nede 0, rolled shal I been on many a tonge; 1061 Er al be wrought, with-outen any drede. Through-out the world my belle shal be ronge;

And wommen most wol hate me of alle. For I sey nought that she so sodeynly Allas, that swich a cas me sholde falle! Yaf? him her love, but that she gan enclyne To lyk him first, and I have told yow why; "They wol seyn, in as muche as in me is And after that, his manhood and his pyne 676 I have hem 11 don dishonour, weylawey ! 1066 Made love with-inne hir herte for to myne, Al be I not the firste that dide amis, For which, by proces and by good servyse, What helpeth that to do 12 my blame awey? He gat hir love, and in no sodeyn wyse. But sin 13 I see there is no bettre way,

And that to late is now for me to rewe,14 1070

To Diomede algate 15 I wol be trewe.'

“But, Troilus, sin 13 I no better may,

And sin 13 that thus departen ye and I, The morwe and goostly 14 for to speke,

com, This Diomede is come un-to Criseyde,

Yet preye I God, so yeve 16 yow right good

1031 And shortly, lest that ye my tale breke,


1075 So wel he for him-selve spak and seyde,

As for the gentileste, trewely, That alle hir sykes 15 sore adoun he leyde.

That ever I say, 17 to serven feithfully, And fynally, the sothe for to seyne,

And best can ay his lady 18 honour kepe:”

1035 He refte 16 hir of the grete 17 of al hir payne.

And with that word she brast 19 anon to

wepe. I let 2 gave 3 a potion 4 must die 5 unless 6 for 1 gave 2 also 3 better 4 wear 5 pencil, small flag very shame ? because s pity slay 10 may 11 thrive 6 by ? then wept 8 know not gone

shame 12 beginning 13 morrow 14 spiritually 15 sighs 16 de 11 them 2 put 13 since 14 repent at any rate prived 17 great (most)

give 18 lady's 19 burst 20 at once











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