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6. Explain any experimental method of determining the number of vibrations in a given time which produce a musical note of a given pitch.

7. What series of musical notes may be produced on a single string of the violin, by touching it lightly with the finger while the bow is applied to it? (The series of notes may be defined by the number of vibrations which correspond to each note, the number corresponding to the fundamental note, or that of the open string, being given.)

8. Explain how the opening and stopping the finger-holes of such an instrument as a flute changes the notes produced.

9. State the fundamental hypotheses of the Corpuscular or Newtonian and those of the Undulatory theories of light, with reference to the state of luminous bodies, the mode of propagation of light, and the manner in which it affects our organs of vision.

10. If a tube of small bore were constructed so as to branch into two tubes near one extremity, and two aerial waves of equal intensity were transmitted up the branch tubes from their respective extremities, under what condition would they fail to cause any wave to be transmitted beyond the point of their junction along the single tube?

11. If two equal pencils of light proceed from two points very near together, in the same phase, and fall on a white screen equidistant from the two luminous points, state and explain the resulting phenomena.

Why is it necessary that the two points be extremely near to each other? By what experimental artifices may this condition be effectively secured?

12. What is the distinctive property of common polarized light? What is the peculiar character of the vibrations which produce it?

13. Explain any method of practically producing polarized light.

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 15, 1858. 6 to 8.

II. F. 1. Comparative Anatomy and Animal Physiology. 1. NAME some animals which are stationary; are they so at all periods of their life?

2. Describe what you have seen of the movements of any of the Vorticella; state by what means you think the movements are effected; and mention the chief points of difference that have struck you between the movements of these animals and those of vertebrates.

3. As a general rule muscular fibres run obliquely to their tendons, and the tendons are inserted into the bones near to the joints. What disadvantages result from these arrangements, and what are the compensating advantages? (Illustrate this and your answers to any of the succeeding questions by diagrams or drawings.)

4. What are the peculiar provisions in the Bird to give lightness to the frame? Are these equally observed in all birds? Mention the peculiarities in the skeleton of the Bird which are for the purpose of giving strength to the wings. Wherein do the lacunæ and canaliculi of the bones in birds differ from those in mammals?

5. Upon how many toes of each foot do the Horse, the Elephant, the Ox, the Rhinoceros, the Hippopotamus, the Badger, and the Cat respectively bear? How does the foot of the Badger differ from that of the Cat?

6. To what parts of the human foot do the hoof, the coffin, pastern, and cannon bones, and the hock-bone of the Horse correspond?

7. Wherein does the locomotive apparatus of the Fish differ from that of other animals?

8. To what peculiarity in the animal has the construction of the tail of the Whale, as differing from that of fishes generally, reference?

9. What is the provision whereby a bird is enabled to rest securely and without fatigue upon its perch?

10. What are the provisions for locomotion in those animals which have no limbs?

11. Name and describe the specimen bone.

[The specimen given was the thigh-bone of a rabbit.]

MONDAY, Dec. 20, 1858. 10 to 12.

II. F. 2. Botany and Vegetable Physiology. 1. WHAT parts of plants are the Blackberry, Strawberry, Mulberry, Apple, Potatoe, Beet, Tea, Opium?

2. Describe fully, but in as few words as possible, Spe

cimen 1.

3. Pull to pieces and describe Specimens 2 and 3, attending especially to the structure of the Flower of Specimen 2, and state the Natural Order to which it belongs.

4. What is the difference between Determinate and Indeterminate Inflorescence? Give an example of each of them, or draw diagrams of them.

5. Distinguish between-oval, ovate, and obovate; acuminate and cuspidate; dentate, serrate, and crenate.

6. How do you distinguish Exogenous and Endogenous plants from each other? To which of these classes do you refer the Herb Paris (Paris quadrifolia) and Black Bryony (Tamus communis)?

7. In Exogenous plants what is meant by Medullary Rays? What are Stomata, and what is their use?

8. What are the exhalations of plants during the day and night respectively? From whence are they derived?

9. What are the different kinds of Cell? How are new Cells formed?

10. Describe the action of the Pollen upon the Ovules. How does it obtain access to them?

[The specimens given were :


Stem and leaves of Bramble (Rubus discolor). 2. Sprig with flowers of Toadflax (Linaria repens). 3. Fruit of the Bladder-nut (Staphylea pinnata).]

TUESDAY, Dec. 21, 1858. 6 to 8 P.M.

II. F. 3. Physical Geography, and Geology.

1. DESCRIBE briefly the principal physical features in the geography of England and Wales, with reference to the mountains and valleys, and the river basins and drainage of the country.


2. Describe briefly also the like features in North America. 3. Mention some of the principal Ocean currents. do you account for the fact of the mean annual temperature in this country being considerably higher than that which corresponds to its latitude?


What are the principal distinctions between stratified and unstratified rocks? By what other names are they distinguished, and why?

5. What is meant by the terms denudation and aqueous deposition? and why is it concluded that the processes indicated by those terms must have been simultaneous, and, generally, very slow processes? By what agencies do you consider these processes to have been effected?

6. What is meant by Igneous Rocks? Mention some of the principal forms under which they appear both as ancient rocks, and as masses of more recent origin. Give some well-known examples of the latter. In what manner do igneous rocks usually exist among sedimentary rocks? What do you understand by Metamorphic Rocks; and what are the proofs of their being such?

7. Give a tabular statement of the series of geological formations recognized in this country, mentioning briefly and generally their mineralogical characters,

8. State generally the kinds of organic remains which characterize each of the three great groups into which the whole series of geological formations is usually divided.

9. Mention the principal Ossiferous caves in this country, and state generally the kinds of organic remains found in them.

10. Mention the principal coal fields in this country, on the continent of Western Europe, and in North America.

11. What is the usual position to which beds of coal approximate more or less? What deviations are there from this position, and in what manner is the continuity of the beds frequently interrupted? How do beds of coal appear to have been formed? In what direction do the coal strata basset out, generally, in the coal fields of the north-eastern parts of this country; and how is the superficial area of those coal fields limited on the sides where the coal beds do not basset out?

12. Mention the principal lead-mine districts in England. What is the usual position of a lead vein? What reasons are there for concluding that the ore was deposited in pre-existing fissures? To what kinds of interruptions of continuity are the veins subjected? In what form has the mass of copper ore existed in the most productive copper mines of this country?

13. How do you demonstrate that portions of the earth's surface now far above the level of the ocean must formerly have been far beneath it?

Dec. 1858.

II. G. Freehand Drawing from the flat.

[One hour allowed.]

A human figure, leaning on a stick, was given in outline, with the following directions:

The Student is required to copy in pencil on this paper the above figure, increasing the scale so that AB is enlarged to CD opposite. Precise imitation and clearness of outline is necessary. No instruments or means of measurement of any kind will be allowed.

Dec. 1858.

II. G. Drawing from Models.

[One hour allowed.]

THE Examiner was instructed to select a chair framed square and with square legs, and to place it as if thrown down, so as to rest on the front of the seat, the top rail of the back being on a level with the table.

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