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promised by the draft of the New Statues, should be carried into effect without delay, and there would be no difficulty in doing this, as the present constitution of the Syndicate depends not upon Statute, but upon a Grace of the Senate. The Librarian's evidence discloses a strange state of things, as the absence of any kind of subordination amongst the Officers of the Library, (Ev. p. 52); the lax and unsystematic management of bookbinding, which was left entirely to the bookbinder till 1850, (Ev. p. 55); the want of books or established system to guide the newly elected Librarian in 1845, (Ev. p. 58). Further, the burthen of selecting the foreign books to be bought, in every department of literature, is most improperly thrown on a single person, the Librarian. It is true that very great improvements have recently been made, and perhaps as much has been done as the Syndicate could with propriety attempt, on the eve of such extensive changes in its constitution: but the requisite reforms can only be efficiently carried out by a governing body which has some chance of being permanent.

70. The formation of the Catalogue of a large and rapidly increasing Library, is a problem most difficult of satisfactory solution. The old Catalogue, formed about 30 years ago, must have cost upwards of £500, judging from the price of £21 paid for each letter, from R to Z; at which time the number of books could not have been more than half as many as at present. This is a troublesome and expensive undertaking, that must be shortly recommenced, and, in order to carry it out effectually, it will be necessary to examine every volume. The returns from various European Libraries, given in the second Appendix to the Report of the Committee on Public Libraries (1850), furnish information on this, as well as on other points having reference to good management. In some Libraries, the complete title, with every particular relating to each book, is written on a seperate leaf of paper, and these leaves are then arranged in volumes by some contrivance, which easily admits of the introduction of other titles in their proper places. It is probable that the Anastatic or Autographic Press might be used with advantage, if it was judged desirable to provide 20 or 30 copies of the titles of books for present and future use, which could be thus obtained by transferring the original manuscript to zinc. Great care would however be required to do the work well, and on the other hand to avoid the commencement of an elaborate scheme which could not be carried out. When some system of proceeding has been carefully settled, it will be advisable to employ the assistants on the New Catalogue beyond the usual Library hours, for which a reasonable additional payment must of course be made.

71. It is most desirable that Foreign scientific, and other periodicals, which are bought, should be furnished to the Library immediately after their publication, or as early as any private person could obtain them. Most of these works are now bound and placed on the shelves quite as soon as can be done without risk of injuring the books, but it is necessary that each part should be accessible as soon as published. Very little delay need be allowed, inasmuch as one, at least, of the London booksellers, receives a weekly parcel even from Germany. For several years there has been a shew of giving opportunities for reading periodicals as they are published, but those exposed with this object were generally from three to twelve months old, before the improvements

commenced last Christmas. Even now, there is no proper place set apart for this purpose, and that used at present is cold and unprovided with seats. These periodicals might be deposited in "pigeon holes," ou one side of a lock-up case in the New Library, to which any one, who had the privilege of taking out books, might be admitted for the purpose of reading.

72. There are many minor matters, which are still of great importance in the proper disposal of the funds of the Library. A large collection of the foreign catalogues of books for sale, would furnish full information of the values of, and opportunities for purchasing many desirable works. An embossing stamp would mark the books with great expedition, and it would be cheaper and safer than the existing system of pasted labels, which disfigure the title page of every book to which they are attached. It has been stated that steam is capable of effacing the embossed marks on paper, but it is rather difficult to imagine how it could be applied to the title page without injuring the book, or why this should appear to be a valid objection to the use of the stamp, when a piece of damp blotting paper is quite sufficient to remove the label now in use. However, the employment of a coloured stamp, like that of the Post Office envelopes, would leave nothing more to be desired, and it might, moreover, be made to indicate the year. Trifling as such a matter may seem, it is not unworthy of attention, as 5000 labels are consumed annually, and, therefore, the cost of printing, cutting, and pasting them must be considerable, either in time or money, without regarding the injury thus done to the books. The brass supports for the shelves in the New Library are armed with sharp edges, which have in numerous cases, made great havoc with the bindings of books. There is no support provided in the Galleries for resting the heavy books when taken down from their places, although this might have been done with ease if the designer of the ornamental railing had had any regard to utility.


73. We have an annual Report from the Syndics of the Observatory, why should not the Library Syndicate favour the Members of the Senate with a similar account of their stewardship? It seems that those who contribute to the Library fund £2,000, year after year, may very justly expect some account of the manner in which it is spent. This Report should state what sums of money had been received and how they had been expended, whether in buying foreign books, or in paying for building, fittings, or salaries. There might also be given a classified list of the books purchased during the past year. Giessen and Brussels, they even print yearly catalogues of all their acquisitions. The Members of the Senate should also be invited to assist in the distribution of the funds, by recommending such books as they have reason to believe to be worthy of a place in the Library, and if the Syndicate found it impossible to act upon any recommendation, it would only be proper to state the grounds for such adverse decision. It is certain that the large income of the Library can only be advantageously distributed by the active co-operation of men who are conversant with various departments of learning.

74. It fortunately happens that a statement of the position of the Press affairs, at the beginning of the present Century, has been preserved, although it is not to be found in the Public Library. I

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refer to the "Facts and Observations relative to the state of the University Press," which were printed and circulated amongst Members of the Senate, by order of the Press Syndicate, November 8, 1809. The origin of this tract is thus explained :-"Great doubts having been "long entertained respecting the management of the Press, both by the "Syndics and the University at large, Dr. Milner and Mr. Wood were "appointed, in the Spring of 1808, to examine into the matter, and report to the Syndics the result of their inquiries." Every possible impediment was thrown in the way by the printer. He stated "that "the excess of receipts above the payments was £2976; whereas it appears from the Vice-Chancellor's book of receipts and payments, "that the balance in those five years was against the Press to the "amount of £492," (p. 4). The examination was not concluded till November, 1809, and must, therefore, have been extended through a space of eighteen months. It had been the custom to keep the books in a form, that admitted of a direct comparison of the amount of wages paid with the value of the work done, but in 1805, the printer took upon himself to change this useful system, and subsequently a mere list of wages paid was entered. It is somewhat remarkable that these distinguished examiners, with free access to all accounts, and after an eighteen months' study of them, were unable to give a definite statement of the Press profits before or after 1802, but they cautiously observe "They had very strong reasons for believing that for the fifteen or twenty years preceding 1802, the Press gains could not well be less "than £1,500 a year." (p. 5). Again, they say "here is a Stock of "£40,000, the produce of which, in the judgment of the Reporters, has, upon the supposition of a fair and even liberal appraisement, been absolutely negative for the space of five years," (p. 16), that is, from 1802 to 1807. For the curious details of the mode in which a highly profitable trade was suddenly destroyed, I refer to the tract itself, (Aw. 4. 26. in St. John's College Library). The printer tendered his resignation, and when it was accepted on the 16th of June, 1808, leave of absence was also granted to him, according to his request. On the 11th of November, 1809, Mr. John Smith was elected University Printer, and it was carefully stipulated in his patent, that he was to hold this office only during pleasure, and until it was thought proper to revoke the appointment. Under the new management prosperity seems to have returned. As the Press profits were, in those days, the chief source of income to the University, we may form some judgment of their probable amount, by considering the sums of money furnished out of the Chest for various sites and buildings, in addition to a considerable part of the ordinary expenses of the University.



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75. The difficulty of providing funds for building the proposed New Library, gave rise to the appointment of a Syndicate to examine what assistance could be furnished for that purpose from the Chest, and on their Report of May, 1830, the Member of the First Syndicate founds the following statement: "A report of a Syndicate made in "the month of April last, made the disposable capital of the University about £13,000, after all claims upon it were satisfied, and "after leaving a balance of £5,000 (exclusive of a great amount of "bills not due,) in the hands of the Vice-Chancellor, for the purpose "of carrying on the ordinary business of the University. And it

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appeared from the Report of a former Syndicate, which was appointed "to inquire into the income and expenditure of the University, that "the excess of the income above the ordinary expenditure was about " £2,500. It was expected however that this excess would speedily "become much greater, in consequence of the increased activity and "capabilities of the Public Press, the trading profits of which form "the great source of the income of the University." (Obs. p. 56). Ultimately, as we have seen (§. 15), the proposal for building was laid aside for a few years, and after its revival in 1835, no hint is to be found of any sum worth mentioning having been contributed to that object out of the Chest. We meet with no very extraordinary expenditure during the next twelve years, 1830-1841; the prices of Bibles and Prayer Books continued much the same as before, but in 1842 they were greatly reduced. A Syndicate appointed to enquire into the state of the funds of the University, recommended in June of the same year, 1842, the imposition of additional fees, which must have produced upwards of £2000 a year.

76. We thus find that the University Press was very profitable for many years preceding 1802, but in the succeeding five years it actually caused a loss to the University. After the investigation in 1809, the Press must have become very flourishing, for in the years 1821-1833, nearly £60,000 was expended in extending and improving the buildings of the University. (Ev. p. 16) In 1830 we have seen that there was then £18,000 in the Chest, and the income a short time before exceeded the ordinary expenditure by £2,500 a year, at which time a still greater degree of prosperity was expected from the new machinery and buildings about that time completed: but, on the contrary, a due consideration of all circumstances appears to shew that, from this time, the profits declined very rapidly in a most unaccountable manner. Notwithstanding the addition of £2000 a year to the ordinary income of the University, by the increase of fees granted in 1842, we find that there was a small balance due from the Chest at the end of 1846.

77. Members of the Senate can only obtain these occasional glimpses of the proceedings at the University Press. The evidence given to the Commissioners shewed that the yearly profits were £895 on the average of the seven years ending 1851, (Ev. p. 15); but that the drawback on paper had been £922 a year, on the average of the six years ending 1850. (Ev. p. 20) But there is no mention made of an allowance for rent of the extensive premises, depreciation of stock, or for interest on invested capital, during this term of seven years. There is no account of the sums expended in new type and machinery in this interval. The type used for ordinary work seems almost worn out, and most Members of the Senate, who have occasion to employ a Printer, avoid the University Press. It is just, however, to the subordinate officers to state, that the proofs sent out are commended for their accuracy. If we regard the £895 as the legitimate profit of the Press, still this is little more than half of the amount of rent, which might be expected to be derived from the prudent investment of £27,658 in sites and buildings. Again, there is no account given of the mode in which this profit is calculated; and it is manifest that, in an extensive printing and publishing concern, this is a matter of some

difficulty. Thus, supposing that the expense of producing each copy of one of the magnificent red bordered folios, was £1 about fifteen years ago; its present selling price of £2, is made up of £1 for original cost, eleven shillings for fifteen year's interest on that cost, and a profit of nine shillings. But it would be a most erroneous view, to regard the eleven shillings as any part of a profit of the Press, when it could have been much more simply secured by an investment in the Funds.

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78. Since 1842, the monopolies of the University and the Queen's Printer have been partially interfered with; and this is put forth as a sufficient reason for an immense capital, not merely lying unproductive, but being, I fear, in course of rapid dissipation. An examination of the state of the Oxford University Press, enjoying no peculiar privilege, will shew the imaginary nature of this impediment to our prosperity. From the Report of the Oxford Commissioners, we learn that "the revenue arising from the printing of Bibles and Prayer Books "amounts, it is said, to not less than £8000 a year; but this is not "carried regularly every year to the University account. Very consi"derable balances have been thus paid over during the last twenty 66 years. On the University Galleries a sum of about £60,000 was "expended, of money arising from the profits of the Press....The Delegates a few years since transferred to the account of the University a "further sum of about £40,000, and last year £60,000, which was part "of a still larger accumulation." It is also stated that the prosperity of the Press is of comparatively recent date, and that the profits for many years, were principally employed in the formation of capital in buildings and stock. Thus, very recently the Press has paid £160,000 over to the University of Oxford, which was little more than half of the profits derived from printing Bibles and Prayer Books. As the Commissioners represent £8000 to be the share of the University in the gains arising from the printing and sale of Bibles and Prayer Books, the total profits derived from this source must be near £13,000 a year. On the other hand, the Cambridge Press, which enjoys precisely the same privileges, is far from being so prosperous. Although a large capital was invested about twenty-five years ago, in building and fitting up new printing offices, on a very extensive scale, yet the proceeds of the Press now scarcely amount to £900 a year. As the principal part of the University income was formerly derived from the profits of the Press, a consideration of the sums of money contained in, and granted out of the Chest, (§.76), at different times, furnishes a pretty correct indication of the character of the management at the corresponding seasons. The example of what is actually being done at Oxford, affords a satisfactory reply to those who argue that the existing depression is caused by the partial interference with the monopoly by the proceedings in Scotland. Even if this view were correct, it would require, what is here suggested, an immediate investigation of the Press affairs.

79. The business matters of the Cambridge University Press could scarcely be kept with greater secrecy, if they were the private affairs of the Syndics. The profits, however, which they pay over to the University, are such as must completely fail to satisfy Members of the Senate that their business is so conducted as to return a proper interest and profit for the capital invested. It must be obvious that, in such a

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