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To the year 1833 and to the Oriel Common-room we assign the commencement of this revival. It is undoubtedly true that previously to that year symptoms of awakening had already begun to manifest themselves outside the Evangelical party, but these attempts were made mostly by individuals, and not by any large section of the Church'. These events were few and far between, still they were signs of awakening, and deserve to be recorded *.

So little interest was attached to what was going on in the Church, that till recently no church organ had cxisted. This defect was remedied in 1818, when, mainly through the instrumentality of Mr. Henry Handley Norris and Mr. Joshua Watson, the “Christian Remembrancer” sprung into life. The foundation of the “Incorporated Church Building Society” in the same year remedied a great evil in the past, and gave good promise for the future. Parliament, too, began to awake to its responsibilities, and to make amends for the past; relying mainly upon local liberality, helped to make provision for more adequate Church accommodation by


The names of Bishop Jebb and his friend Alexander Knox, and of Joshua Watson, at once occur.

* Some improvement was made as early as 1803, when measures were passed in Parliament to restrain clerical farming, to enforce the residence of Incumbents, and to encourage the building of churches. 43 George III.

a grant of one million pounds, and two more grants amounting together to 6926,000.

The Regius Professors of Divinity at Oxford did their best to revive Theological studies.

Between 1826-1828 Dr. Lloyd ? was the Regius Professor ; in his lectures the history and origin of the Prayerbook formed a prominent part, and the Services were traced back through the Roman Missals and Breviaries to their original sources. The lectures were attended by all the earlier promoters of the revival except Mr. Keble, who had left the University in 1823, and to those lectures Mr. Oakley, one of the most prominent amongst its earliest members, ascribes the commencement of the movement: "I do remember," he says, “to have received from him an entirely new notion of Catholic doctrine;" and “I have no doubt his teaching had a most powerful influence upon the movement.” Dr. Lloyd was succeeded as Regius Professor of Divinity by Dr. Burton (1829–1836), who directed his pupils to the study of Eusebius and of the history of the Primitive Church.

» The following is an extract from a letter written to the Guardian Newspaper by the Reverend Thomas Keble, brother of the Author of the “Christian Year :" “ I was ordained Deacon in Christ Church Cathedral in 1816 and Priest in 1817, by Bishop Legge, and in both cases the Priest officiated at the North Side of the Altar, standing with his back to the congregation.”

? Afterwards Bishop of Oxford.

A similar work was carried on at Cambridge by Hugh James Rose, who, in 1826, delivered his “ Discourses on the Commission and consequent Duties of the Clergy” before that University.

In June, 1827, Mr. Keble published the "Christian Year,” which in the eyes of opponents was " fons et origo mali." The anger which it caused amongst a section of Latitudinarians and Low Churchmen, and the favour which it received from the Church generally (probably no devotional book has ever attained so wide a circulation), was a sign of the growing appreciation of the Church and of a desire for the revival of stricter Church principles a.

William (afterwards Sir William) Palmer" went in 1828 from Trinity College, Dublin, to Oxford, where, though a member of Worcester College, he was attracted to the more congenial atmosphere of Oriel. His great aim and object in going to Oxford was to explore its libraries for a work which he was then intending to publish on Liturgiology, and especially the Ritual of the English Church. This work, which was commenced in 1826, he for a time abandoned, finding that a similar work had been already begun by Dr. Lloyd, who had, in 1827, been raised to the

* Not long afterwards the “Christian Year” was publicly burnt at Oxford. A friend visiting Mr. Newman at Littlemore said to him, “A certain book has been publicly burnt, What is it?” Newman answered, “ The Christian Year.”

b Died in 1886.

See of Oxford; but on Bishop Lloyd's premature death Mr. Palmer was persuaded by Dr. Burton, who had succeeded Dr. Lloyd as Regius Professor of Divinity, to continue his work; and in 1832, the Bishop's collections being added to his own, he brought out the Origines Liturgicæ The work had long been a desideratum in the Church ; it was written on principles which were then considered as High Church, but such as most of those who are now-a-days called Low Churchmen would allow the divine institution of the Church, and its independence of the State in Creeds and jurisdiction. For this work the Church was in the first instance indebted to Bishop Jebb (consecrated Bishop of Limerick in 1823), for it was in preparing for the careful system which Dr. Jebb had adopted in his Ordination Examinations that Mr. Palmer first imbibed the idea of his book d.

We must now return to Oriel. In 1823 John Henry Newman, who had taken his B.A. Degree at Trinity, was elected a Fellow of Oriel e; in 1824

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c" Or Antiquities of the English Ritual, with a Dissertation on Primitive Liturgies.”

d Forster's Life of Bishop Jebb, p. 243. In 1838 Mr. Palmer published his invaluable “Treatise on the Church of Christ.”

e Newman tells us how, when elected to his Fellowship, he hastened “to the Tower to receive the congratulations of all the Fellows ; I bore it till Keble took my hand, and then felt so abashed and unworthy of the honour done to me, that I


Edward Bouverie Pusey (1800—1882); and in 1826 Robert Isaac Wilberforce and Hurrell Froude were elected Fellows of the same college. In 1828 Dr. Copleston, Provost of Oriel, was raised to the See of Llandaff, and about the same time Mr. Pusey became Professor of Hebrew and Canon of Christ Church.

For the office of Provost of Oriel two names, those of Hawkins and Keble, were brought forward; from the first Keble had been a pronounced Churchman, and in 1827 had published the “Christian Year;" but in the election Newman gave all the weight of his vote and influence to Hawkins, and Hawkins was elected. To explain this preference, which at first seems strange, we must give some account of Newman's history since he was elected Fellow of Oriel. In 1824 he took Holy Orders, and became curate of St. Clement's, Oxford. Whilst Curate of St. Clement's it devolved upon him to superintend the building of a church for that parish; and so little knowledge did he possess of, and so little regard did he pay to, Church architecture, that the result was the erection of that singular edifice on the Marston-road, which no one can look upon without remarking its resemblance to a boiled rabbit. At that period of his life he was a member of the Bible Society (with

seemed desirous of quite sinking into the ground.”—Apologia, p. 76.

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