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which the Low Church party was identified); Secretary to the Local Board of the Church Missionary Society, and a frequenter of the parties given by Mr. Hill, the Evangelical Vice-Principal of St. Ed. mund Hall; and when the “Record” newspaper was started in 1828 he was one of its earliest sub. scribers, and for some time continued its constant reader. When Whately was appointed in 1825 Principal of St. Alban Hall, he chose Newman as his VicePrincipal; the only points of difference between Whately and Newman at that time being that Newman's sentiments were too much in favour of Evangelicalism to please Whatelyf; this appointment he vacated the following year on being appointed Tutor to his college in succession to Jelf. The Tutorship he held only till 1831, when he, together with two other Tutors, Wilberforce and Froude, resigned on account of a difference with the new Provost.

Thus at that early period there was but little sympathy in Church feeling between Keble and Newman; “He (Keble) was shy of me for years," writes Newman, “in consequence of the marks which I bore upon me of Evangelical and liberal schools h.” Be

Mozley's Rem., i. 24. & Bishop Lloyd was desirous of getting Newman appointed Tutor to Prince George of Cumberland ; the age, however, was limited to 27 or above; Newman was only 25, so Jelf was appointed.

Apol., 77.

sides this difference in their Church views, Keble had left Oxford the same year in which Newman was elected to his Fellowship, and consequently the two were at first brought very little together; and it was not until 1828, when Hurrell Froude, a former pupil of Keble's, made them more intimate, that they knew much of each other. This will explain why Newman voted for Hawkins, and perhaps how Hawkins instead of Keble became Provost of Oriel.

To the Vicarage of St. Mary's, Oxford, vacated by Hawkins' election to the Provostship, Newman su ceeded, and to St. Mary's was attached the hamlet of Littlemore, about three miles from Oxford on the London road, which did not even possess a church. The first stone of the church at Littlemore, which was built as a chapel-of-ease to St. Mary's, was laid in July, 1835; and Littlemore Church, although simplicity itself in its construction, was the germ of the revival of worship within the Churchi Newman's idea of ritual at that time seems to have been on a par with his taste for architecture, for we are told that he administered the Holy Communion to the people at St. Mary's in their seats down the church, the desks of which were covered with white linen, and looked like tables

In Michaelmas Term, 1829, Newman, with other

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Hope's Worship in Church of England, p. I.

Mozley's Rem., i. 345.


Fellows and Probationary Fellows of Oriel, began (after the manner of the meetings commenced at Oxford by the Wesleys exactly a century before) to hold meetings for the study of the Scriptures; at these meetings the question whether the Pope was Antichrist (a belief very common in those days), as to which Newman entertained doubts, was frequently discussed.

We will not stop at present to enquire into the various processes through which his mind passed. Suffice it to say that by 1833 an opinion had become fixed at Oriel, that if the Church was to be saved it must be on principles different from those of either the Evangelical or Broad Church Schools; for whilst the former had been weighed in the balance and found wanting, the Broad Church party were favouring a Parliamentary Church, and trusting to those very Acts of Parliament which threatened to be the Church's ruin. The new party which was arising, and of which Newman was chief, saw that men had thought too much about the Establishment, and had been bartering their birthright for a mess of pottage which Acts of Parliament seemed to offer them, and that the "bigoted two-bottle orthodox” were unlikely to save the Church.

At the beginning of the Long Vacation of 1833, when Newman (who at the end of 1832 had left England in company of Hurrell Froude) was absent from Oxford, Hurrell Froude, who had returned before Newman, and W. Palmer of Worcester College, resolved, in the Common-room of Oriel, to form an Association for upholding the rights and principles of the Church. This plan was communicated by W. Palmer to Hugh James Rose, Rector of Hadleigh in Essex', and by Hurrell Froude to Mr. Keble; soon afterwards the Reverend A. Perceval was invited to take part in the deliberations. A conference took place at Hadleigh Rectory, which continued for nearly a week m. It appeared to those who met there that the action of Parliament arose from a mistaken idea of the character and constitution of the Church, of its legal independence of the State, and the divine commission and authority of the Clergy; they agreed that the first step was to revive a practical recognition of the truths set forth in the Preface to the Ordinal. The first fruits of the meeting were the Tracts for the Times.

Newman reached England from the Continent on July 9. On the following Sunday, July 14, Keble preached from the pulpit of St. Mary's his famous Assize Sermon, afterwards published under the title of “National Apostasy." The appointment of Mr. Keble to preach that sermon seemed at the time a small matter, but, said Mr. Newman, “I have always considered and kept that day as the start of the religious movement of 1833."

In 1832 Mr. Rose had started the “British Magazine,” in which many poems afterwards published in the Lyra Apostolica first appeared.

m Palmer's Narrative of Events, p. 102.

After Newman's return to Oxford, and the meeting at Hadleigh, frequent conversations took place at Oriel between Keble, Palmer, Froude, and Newman, in which various plans were discussed ; and although some difference of opinion existed on the question of the union between Church and State, yet the necessity of combined action was recognized, and especial attention was bestowed on the preparation of a formulary of agreement on the basis of an Association for that purpose.

In the autumn of the same year a draft of a formulary as the basis of further proceedings, having been adopted and printed by Mr. Perceval, was submitted to the public, suggesting the formation of an Association of Friends of the Church, with these two objects: (1) “To maintain pure and inviolate the doctrine, the discipline, and the services of the Church ; that is, to withstand all change which involves the denial of, or departure from, primitive practice in religious offices, and innovations upon the Apostolical prerogative, order, and commission of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons : (2) To afford Churchmen an opportunity of exchanging their sentiments, and co-operating together on a large scale."

One of the first results of this appeal was an

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