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in our churches, so the rebuilding of Leeds parish church under Dr. Hook, in 1839, must be regarded as the second. At Cambridge also, in 1839, was founded (by John Mason Neale, Mr. Benjamin Webb, and Mr. E. J. Boyce) the Camden Society, with its organ, the Ecclesiologist, the first number of which was issued in 1841, Mr. Webb, whilst still an undergraduate of Trinity College, being its Secretary. The Camden Society, in 1846, removed to London, under the name of the “Ecclesiological” Society, having for its object “ the promotion of the study of Christian Art and Antiquities, more especially in whatever relates to the architecture, arrangement, and decoration of churches." In 1841 the Motett Society was founded for the purpose of reviving “the study and practice of the choral service of the Church ." Thus "the externals of divine service and the beauties of religious worship were brought into greater prominence.”

We must now come to that development in the Church Services which is popularly known as Ritualism. One of the great practical strides made of late in the education of the humbler classes has been the introduction of what are called Object Lessons, and such lessons are amongst the most popular in Na. tional Schools. Ritualism is the object lesson of religion", and may be considered as the complement of Tractarianism. Its object is to carry out the Apostolic precept, “ Let all things be done decently and in order 8 ;" “ let all things be done unto edifying h,” “and to the Glory of Godi.” It may, we suppose, be assumed as granted that the ideal of a Church's service on earth should be as near an approach as possible to the service in heaven, where we are told there are white robes, incense at the Golden Altar, and seven lamps burning. This ideal of a Christian service being taken for granted, the question to be determined is, How much Ritual should there be ? What is the kind of Ritual most suited to the worship of God? We propose in this chapter to treat the subject under two heads: (1) the Legality; (2) the Limits of Ritual; and then to give a short account of the present state of the Law Courts.

d In 1852 an amalgamation was effected between the Ecclesiological Society and the Motett Choir, which continued until 1862, when by an amicable arrangement it was dissolved.

e In 1845 stone altars were decided to be illegal by Sir H. Jenner Fust in Faulkner v. Litchfield.

(1.) As to the Legality of Ritual. The first point to be decided is, what is the proper Vestment prescribed to be used by the Clergyman during divine service ?

Every one knows that there is not a word in the Prayer-Book prescribing the use of the black gown ; but neither is mention made from one end of the Prayer-Book to the other of the surplice. There is only one place, and that is at the commencement of the Prayer-Book, which prescribes the vestment which is to be worn by the Clergyman in church :-"And here is to be noted, that such Ornaments of the Church, and of the Ministers thereof, at all times of their Ministration, shall be retained, and be in use, as were in this Church of England, by the Authority of Parliament, in the Second Year of the Reign of King Edward VI.."

' Dr. Littledale in Church and World, 1866, p. 36. & 1 Cor. xiv. 40.

b Ibid. 26.

i Ibid. x. 21.

As to the vestments of the minister, the First Prayer-Book of King Edward VI.'s reign contains two Rubrics. One of these directs the use of the surplice in ordinary ministrations, and that “Graduates when they do preach should use such hood as pertaineth to their several degrees.” The other relates to the vestments appointed for the ministration of the Holy Communion : "Upon the day and at the time appointed for the Ministration of the Holy Communion, the Priest that shall execute the Holy Ministry, shall put upon him the vesture appointed for that Ministration, that is to say, a white Alb plain with a Vestment or Cope. And where there be many Priests or Deacons, so many shall be ready to help the Priest in the Ministration as shall be requisite, and shall have upon them likewise the vesture appointed for the ministering, that is to say, Albs with tunicles.”

The second year of his reign commenced January 28, 1548, and ended January 27, 1549.

In the first year of King Edward VI. there had been an excessive ceremonial, unsanctioned by the use of the Primitive Church ; the object of those who drew up the first Prayer-Book of his reign was to purge out mediæval accretions, to substitute the English for the Latin language, and to adapt the book to the requirements of the Church. This Prayer-Book, which the Act of Uniformity attached to it pronounced to have been composed “under

" the influence of the Holy Ghost," was acceptable to a large majority both of Clergy and laity. But a small section were opposed to several things which still remained, especially the vestments, and, influenced by the Calvinistic reformers of the Continent, complained of the Service-Book as nothing short of the Roman Missal and Breviary, translated into the English language. A number of distinguished foreigners, at the invitation of Cranmer and the Protector Somerset, had settled in this country, and not understanding the English language, and knowing the book only through imperfect translation, were continually complaining of the PrayerBook, and plotting for its alteration.

By such influences as these the young King was led towards a further review of the Prayer-Book, and in April, 1552, a new Prayer-Book (the Second PrayerBook of King Edward VI.) appeared; the Act of Uniformity attached to it speaks of the First PrayerBook “as a godly order agreeable to the word of God and the Primitive Church," yet “because divers doubts and disputes had arisen as to the way in which the book was to be used ... rather by the curiosity of the ministers than of any worthy cause,” therefore the present book was now put forth. Scarcely had this new Prayer-Book come into use when the King died, and Queen Mary succeeded. The Prayer-Book was repealed, and the Latin Mass and its concomitant services again adopted. We now pass to Queen Elizabeth's reign. The new Queen had a difficult task to perform in uniting the discordant elements of the nation. She herself liked a high ritual; the ornaments in the Chapel Royal remained as they had been under her sister; there

a Crucifix on the altar, with tapers lighted before the Sacrament; incense was burnt and obei. sance was made before the altar k.

Cecil, her principal adviser, thoroughly understood the temper of the nation. The two principal parties in the Church were very active, the one desirous of abolishing Episcopacy altogether, and every rite and ceremony which was used by Rome, and to introduce the service and discipline of Geneva ; the other (and amongst them were the Queen and Cecil) wished to introduce the First Prayer-Book of King


* “Stick to your text, Master Dean, leave that alone,” she cried out to Dean Nowell, when he was preaching against the use of images.

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