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only of the county of Oxford , had only £1,600; of Rochester, £1,400; of Llandaff, £1,170; whilst the See of Gloucester, at that time unconnected with Bristol, was worth only £700 a year.

Under such circumstances the Bishops themselves were frequently pluralists. At one and the same time, the Bishops of Llandaff, Oxford, and Rochester were respectively Deans of St. Paul's, Canterbury, and Worcester. The Bishops of Gloucester and of Lichfield held stalls at Westminster. The Bishop of Carlisle was a Prebendary of St. Paul's; the Bishop of St. David's was Dean of Durham and Dean of Brecon as well.

So also amongst the other Clergy the benefices were of very unequal value. Whilst some were very lucrative, 2,623 Livings were under £120 a year, and 2,713 others under £220; and there were eleven, one of which contained 800 inhabitants, under £10; so that of the total number of Livings exceeding 10,000, one half were less than £220 a year, and one fourth under £120; there were also 4,000 Livings without houses fit for residence c.

If considered with regard to the amount of work done, the inequality of Livings was still more glaring;

b In 1836 the county of Berks was added to it, and so, Windsor being in Berkshire, the Chancellorship of the Garter was transferred from Salisbury to Oxford.

· Two Letters to the Archbishop of Canterbury on the Origin and Progress of the Ecclesiastical Commission (1863).

for whereas some small country Livings were worth £3,000, £4,000, and even £7,000 a year, large parishes in London, Lancashire, and Yorkshire, containing 20,000 or 30,000 inhabitants apiece, often paid their Clergy less than £150 a year, and that frequently dependent upon pew-rents.

To remedy this state of things, three Acts of Parliament were passed, the “ Episcopal,” the “Pluralities," and the “ Cathedral" Acts. By the Episcopal Act of 1836 the rule which had prevailed since the Reformation, when the population was only four millions, was broken through, and two new Sees, those of Ripon and Manchester, were formed, and the translation of Bishops was, by nearly equalizing the revenues of all but the five principal Sees d, to a great extent obviated. The number of twenty-six Bishoprics, however, seemed to be considered in. violable ; the Diocese of Ripon, to the Bishopric of which Dr. Longley, Head Master of Harrow, was appointed in 1836, had been provided for by the union of Gloucester and Bristol ; and it was proposed in like manner to unite Bangor and St. Asaph, in order to make a place for the See of Manchester. So, on the death of Dr. Carey, Bishop of St. Asaph, in 1846, the opportunity occurred of uniting the two dioceses under Dr. Bethell, Bishop of Bangor; he,

These are Canterbury, York, London, Durham, and Winchester,

however, refused to accept the additional diocese, whereupon Dr. Short was translated to St. Asaph from Sodor and Man, and Dr. Prince Lee was appointed first Bishop of Manchester in 1848.

By the Pluralities Act of 1838 a more suitable provision was made against pluralities, and for the settlement of a resident Clergyman in each parish e. In order to obtain the money required for these changes, the Cathedral Act was passed, under strong opposition, in 1840. Under the provisions of that Act some 360 Prebendal estates attached to the cathedrals of the Old Foundation ; and the corporate incomes of all the Canons beyond four in (with a few exceptions) all the other cathedrals; and the revenues of the separate estates of Deans and Residentiary Canons as distinguished from their corporate revenues; and the proceeds of sinecure Rectories, were appropriated and entrusted to the management of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. Out of the income arising from these sources the Commissioners now pay to the Bishops, the Deans, the Canons Residentiary, and the Archdeacons, certain fixed stipends; the surplus after such payments are made being administered at their discretion for the benefit of the whole Church. It


By the “Pluralities Act Amendment Act” of 1885 Bishops are given a discretionary power to appoint one or more curates during the vacancy of a benefice, and it permits two benefices to be held by a Clergyman, providing that neither of them exceeds £200 a year, and that they are not more than five miles apart.

was, however, some years before the direct advantage of this Act was felt, for in 1843 Sir Robert Peel forestalled the increment of the revenue by inducing Parliament to impose upon the fund a charge of £30,000 a year, for the creation, with a stipend of £150 a year each, of two hundred new districts in the mineral, shipping, and manufacturing towns; and of £18,000 a year to repay to Queen Anne's Bounty the interest of the sum borrowed to effect such anticipation of its future income. The total value of grants made by the Commissioners between 1840 and October 1, 1884, amounted to £718,000 a year, representing £21,540,000 in capital value; this sum was met by benefactions to the amount of £4,410,000, equivalent to a permanent income in the endowment of benefices of about £147,000 a year; £ 26,000 per annum has been contributed by benefactors to meet the grants of the commissioners for curates in the mining districts; and the total number of benefices thus improved amounts to upwards of 5,000.

Another important Act of Parliament, the “Tithe Commutation Act," was passed in 1836. Previously to that Act the Rector of a parish was entitled to the farmer's tenth wheat-sheaf, his tenth pig, and his tenth sack of potatoes, &c. The new Act (which, however, did not include tithes on hops, orchards, and gardens), did much towards producing a better feeling between the Clergy and the farmers, by providing, instead of tithes being paid in kind, for a general commutation into a rent-charge upon the land, valued according to the price of corn during the seven preceding years: an arrangement by which the Clergy, if they lost in money, gained in peace. Hitherto the payment of tithes had been considered a religious duty, the tithe being recoverable in the Ecclesiastical Courts acting pro salute animæ, not so much for enabling the defrauded Parson to recover his rights, as for the soul's health, and the reformation, of the offending party. But by the Tithe Commutation Act tithe was put on the same level as other property.

' This, however, was regulated by the “Tithe Rent-Charge Amendment Act,” 1886.

A most important point was gained by the revival, after a suppression of more than 130 years, of the functions of Convocation, for which the Church is mainly indebted to a layman, the late Mr. Henry Hoare, and the late Bishop Wilberforce. In 1741 there had been some hope of Convocation being allowed by the Crown to resume its deliberative functions, but the Lower House having refused to receive a communication from the Upper, this hope vanished, and from that time till far into the present century Convocation was not permitted to hold more than formal consultations.

In 1840, Dr. Wilberforce, at that time Archdeacon of Surrey, urged that it was desirable that the meetings of Convocation should consist of something

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