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in her Homilies, in her Canons, over and over again she asserts this; again and again she appeals to “Ancient Authors," "Ancient Canor.," "Ancient Fathers,” and “Decrees” of the Church. Under Holy Scriptures she places “those canonical books of whose authority was never any doubt in the Church e." The “Three Creeds" which were framed in the earliest days of the Catholic Church "ought thoroughly to be received and believed ?." Public prayers in a language not “understanded of the people" is condemned as repugnant to “the customs of the primitive Church g.” The same is declared in her Ordinal", in her Homilies, and Canons i Whereas, if it is necessary to make a comparison, it may be stated that the Church of Rome in its Reformation, which took place (1545-1563) about the same time as the English Reformation, instead of recurring to antiquity, established twelve Articles of Faith, the greater number of them then declared for the first time, and required to be received on oath as necessary to salvation k

e Art. vi.
I Art, viii.

& Art. xxiv. h“It is evident ... that from the Apostles' time there have been these Orders of Ministers in Christ's Church, Bishops, Priests, and Deacons."

See Can. xxxi., xxxii., xxxiii., lx. k“Hanc veram, Catholicam fidem extra quam nemo salvus esse potest, voveo, spondeo, et juro.” The Creed of Pius IV. (at the Council of Trent) contains these twelve points :--1. Seven Sacraments. 2. Trent doctrine of Justification and Original

But as it will be allowed that our Reformers knew their own minds better than the opponents of the Church in the present day, we will conclude this chapter with one quotation from the Church Formularies themselves. Thus Canon XXX. asserts : “So far was it from the purpose of the Church of England to forsake and reject the Churches of Italy, France, Spain, Germany, or any such like Churches, that ... it doth with reverence retain those ceremonies which do neither endanger the Church of God, nor offend the minds of sober men; and only departs from them in these particular points, wherein they have fallen both from themselves in their ancient integrity, and from the apostolical Churches which were their first founders.” This, if other arguments failed, must be conclusive.

Sin. 3. Propitiatory Sacrifice of the Mass. 4. Transubstantiation. 5. Communion in One Kind. 6. Purgatory. 7. Invocation of Saints. 8. Veneration of Reliques. 9. Image Worship. 10. The Roman Church the Mother and Mistress of all Churches. 11. Swearing obedience to the Pope. 12. Receiving the decrees of all Synods and of Trent.—See Dr. Wordsworth's Theophilus Anglicanus.

CHAPTER VII.

THE CHURCH IN DANGER a.

IF

F we were to ask those who are disaffected to the

Church, and who are ignorant of its history, the meaning of Disestablishment and Disendowment, we should be told that it was the depriving the Church of England of those privileges which the State originally conferred on it. But then the question arises, What is Establishment? We have seen in the last chapter that the State never could have established the Church, for the simple reason that the Church existed some hundreds of years before the State, and that it would be more correct to say that the Church made the State, than to say that the State made the Church. Still an opinion prevails in some quarters that at one particular time the State made choice of one out of many religious communities in the country, upon which it bestowed special marks of favour ; that whilst it might have selected the Roman, or the Lutheran, or the Calvinist, or some other sect, it chose that which is known as the Church of England;

• Much information in this chapter is derived from the publications of the “Church Defence Institution.”

that it established it, endowed it with large possessions, and gave it exceptional privileges; that, by way of balance, a bargain was struck between these two bodies, Church and State, which subjected the Church, in a manner different from the other communities, to State control. Such a bargain actually did take place in other countries, but it never took place in England. In France the civil power did establish a formal compact, when a concordat or agreement was made between the supreme secular power in the person of Napoleon I., and the head of that religious body which was established in that country, in the person of the Pope.

How then, it will be asked, did the Church of England come to be established? The answer is,-in precisely the same manner as every other institution in the country: just as the government by King and Parliament is established. In the present day we observe a number of religious bodies, and people are apt to imagine that this was always so. The historical fact is that the Church was formerly coextensive with the nation; hence arose the term National Church; the Church was the nation viewed with reference to religion, just as the army and navy were the nation viewed in reference to warfare b. This was the aspect of Church and State from the seventh to the sixteenth century; individual opponents there were, as there always had been, in the Church, but there was no recognized Dissenting community; the Jews who settled in the country formed no part of the nation; they were looked upon as strangers, as mere chattels of the King, to be persecuted or tolerated at his will. The Lollards who appeared in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were not open Separatists, but disaffected members of the Church, not numerous enough to affect the identity of the Church and nation ; their religion also was mixed up with politics, and the impulse was to get rid of them, as disturbers of the body politic. So that the word Established was not applied to the .Church as opposed to other religious bodies which were not established, for the reason that no other religious bodies existed, and no idea was broached that there could be another. Church.

b Freeman's Disestablishment and Disendowment, p. 29.

The intimate connexion which exists in this country between Church and State is due to the circumstance that, in the early history of the English people, the Church, that is to say, the clerical members of the Church, comprised all the intelligence of the land, of which the State availed itself by summoning to its councils the Archbishops and Bishops. In course of time, when learning spread, the State grew jealous of the power and influence of the Church, and passed measures for regulating it, with the distinct object of curtailing its authority and circumscribing its influence.

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