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necessary first to know what condition and
relation it is placed in, and what is the proper end and purpose of its being.
The science of human nature is, like all other sciences, reduced to a few clear points: there are not many certain truths in the world. It is therefore in the anatomy of the mind, as in that of the body: more good will accrue to mankind by attending to the large, open, and perceptible parts, than by studying too much such finer nerves and vessels, the conformations and uses of which will for ever escape our observation. The disputes are all upon these last; and I will venture to say, they have less sharpened the wits than the hearts of men against each other, and have diminished the
practice more than advanced the theory of morality.
If I could flatter myself that this Essay has any merit, it is in steering betwixt the ectremes of doctrines seemingly opposite; in passing over terms utterly unintelligible; and in forming a temperale, yet not inconsistent, and a short, yet not imperfect system of Ethics.
This I might have done in prose; but I chose verse, and even rhyme, for two reasons: the one will appear obvious; that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards. The other may seem odd, but it is true; I found I could express them more shortly this way than in
prose itself; and nothing is truer than that much of the force, as well as grace, of arguments or.. instructions depends on their conciseness. I was unable to treat this part of my subject more in detail, without becoming dry and tedious; or more poetically, without sacrificing perspicuity to ornament, without wandering from the precision, or breaking the chain of reasoning. If any man can unite all these, without diminution of any of them, I freely confess he will compass a thing above my capacity.
Of the Nature and State of Man, with respect to the Universe.
Of Man in the abstract.... That we can judge only with regard to our own system, being
ignorant of the relations of systems and things.... That man is not to be deemed im-
perfect, but a Being suited to his place and rank in the creation, agreeable to the
general order of things, and conformable to Ends and Relations to him unknown....
That it is partly upon his ignorance of future events, and partly upon the hope of a
future state, that all his happiness in the present depends.... The pride of aiming at
more knowledge, and pretending to more perfection, the cause of man's error and
misery.... The impiety of putting himself in the place of God, and judging of the
fitness or unfitness, perfection or imperfection, justice or injustice, of his dispensa-
tions.... The absurdity of conceiting himself the final cause of the creation, or ex-
pecting that perfection in the moral world which is not in the natural.... The
unreasonableness of his complaints against Providence, while on the one hand he
demands the perfections of the angels, and on the other the bodily qualifications of
the brutes; though to possess any of the sensitive faculties in a higher degree would
render him miserable.... That throughout the whole visible world an universal order
and gradation in the sensual and mental faculties is observed, which causes a sub-
ordination of creature to creature, and of all creatures to man....The gradations of
sense, instinct, thought, reflection, reason ; that reason alone countervails all the
other faculties.... How much further this order and subordination of living creatures
may extend, above and below us; were any part of which broken, not that part
only, but the whole connected creation must be destroyed... The extravagance, mad-
ness, and pride of such a desire.... The consequence of all the absolute submission
due to Providence, both as to our present and future state.
WAKE, my St.-John! leave all meaner things To low ambition, and the pride of kings;
Let us, since life can little more supply
Than just to look about us and to die,
Expatiate free o'er all this scene of man;
A mighty maze! but not without a plan;
A wild, where weeds and flow'rs promiscuous
Or garden, tempting with forbidden fruit.
Together let us beat this ample field,
Try what the open, what the covert yield;
The latent tracts, the giddy heights explore,
Of all who blindly creep, or sightless soar :
Eye nature's walks, shoot folly as it flies,
And catch the manners living as they rise;
Laugh where we must, be candid where we can;
But vindicate the ways of God to man.