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century, formed at Cambridge the Broad Church, or, as it then was called, the Latitudinarian party. In the society of these gifted men, who professed to call no man master, but who all felt more or less the exegetical influence of Grotius, and the doctrinal ascendency of Episcopius, and who read their Bibles in the light of Plato and Plotinus, Tillotson was gradually withdrawn from the school in which his own earlier piety had been moulded and developed. Without losing his respect or affection for that more fervid type of Christianity, represented by Puritanism, his calm and unimpassioned nature could not sympathise with its intense emotions; and, on the other hand, the ritualism of his high-church brethren was as distasteful to his zeal for the active virtues as their exclusiveness was abhorrent to his mild and indulgent charity. The result was, that Tillotson came forth with more of Arminianism than Calvinism in his creed, and without much of either in his sermons; hoping that without party complications he might be allowed to be the lover of all good men, and, without systematic shibboleths, praying that he might be allowed to occupy a post for which there were few competitors, and minister to the English people not so much "doctrine" as "instruction in righteousness."

One extreme leads to another; and, in a free and inquiring community like Protestant Christendom, error is often a reaction against truth overstrained—a revolt from some orthodox tenet which, waxing obese and arrogant, treats other truths with disdain. Thus, the Unitarianism of Boston was a natural recoil from that high-pitched New England spiritualism which almost ignored the Saviour's humanity, and which, in its constant brooding over actual depravity, forgot those noble powers and susceptibilities with which our nature was originally endowed, and consequently assigned it to the regenerating Spirit as His work to produce, not a perfect manhood, but a sort of imperfect angelhood. And in our own day it may be



feared that a meagre and monotonous evangelism-shunning to declare the whole counsel of God, or reiterating a few favourite phrases till they grow as trite and unarresting as a cuckoo-song-has provoked that fatal falsehood which, by expunging from the Saviour's sacrifice the piacular element, leaves little meaning in the Cross, and no Mediator in Christianity. For the theology of the Puritans we confess a fond and admiring affection; but, as Puritanism was itself a protest against the ceremonies substituted for spiritual worship, and against the " opus operatum" substituted for the Saviour in the Church of Rome, so it is possible that spiritual-mindedness, or an inward experience, may have sometimes been pressed to the seeming neglect of outward conduct, and that so much time may have been spent in telling men what and how to believe, that they went their way without feeling that they had faults to cure and a work to do. Nor can we wonder that, wearied with theological wrangling and hollow profession, some sincere and conscientious men should have embraced the Arminian system as the plausible antidote. We believe that a few legitimate grafts on the good old stock would have answered the purpose better than ever so many clusters nailed to a lifeless pole; in other words, we believe that from the free grace of the gospel, proclaimed as frankly as ever, but brought to bear in more minute detail on the whole of man, it would have been easier to educe the completeness of the Christian character, than from the mercenary motives and legal compulsitors which Pelagianism borrowed from Paganism; but we can also see how amiable and virtuous men like Tillotson were led to try the new specific, and how, under the sanction of his respected name, a kind of preaching was introduced and continued for a hundred years, which, with two tables of stone covered over the cross of Christ, and which, teaching many useful lessons, at last forgot to tell sinners the new and living way to heaven.

At the Restoration, Tillotson conformed to the Church of England, and became curate of Cheshunt, near London. In 1663 he was elected preacher at Lincoln's Inn, and in the following year he obtained the Camden lectureship in the city, and thereafter every Tuesday brought to St Lawrence Jewry a concourse of distinguished personages from the remotest quarters of the town, to hear one who now began to be recognised as a model of pulpit eloquence.

As early as his first settlement in London, Tillotson found the floodgates already open, and in mingled torrent Atheism, Popery, and profligacy rushing in. Released from the stern grasp of the Puritan, and encouraged by the worst example in the highest places, the libertine was running to all excess in riot, and in literature and on the stage, as well as in taverns and low haunts of vice, the boldest licence was sure to win the loudest plaudits; whilst, as the inevitable consequence of abounding debauchery, things sacred as well as things decent became a subject of ridicule, and, sitting in the chair of Hobbes, the scorner was supplied with a song by "Hudibras." Amidst the abounding relaxation of morals and contempt of religion there could be discerned in corners of streets and college cloisters an old inhabitant who had come again, and who, all oaths and protestations to the contrary notwithstanding, did not despair of reconciling to Mother Church the jovial monarch, and who, on the principle that "the child is father to the man," in the young rakes and debauchees of London descried the progenitors of many a devout ascetic-many a hopeful Anglo-Papist in the first stage of his progress towards a penitent old age, with its beads, and its crucifix, and its father confessor.

To the ominous prospects of his Church and country Tillotson was painfully alive; and, like a patriot and a man of God, he bent all the strength of his mind and all the advantages of his position to the resistance of the incoming evil. By

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far the ablest of his discourses are his arguments against transubstantiation, and his pleas in favour of natural religion and the foundations of the Christian faith; and it shews into what a Felix-like state the church-goers of London had subsided, that in his remaining discourses, which are chiefly reasonings of temperance, righteousness, and judgment to come," he is obliged to insist on proofs such as St Paul might have urged with the heathen proconsul, but which he would have known to be centuries too late for Jerusalem.

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Yet, in some respects, no preacher could be better adapted to the times. From his strong and wholesome Yorkshire he had brought away a sound English understanding, and every utterance bore the stamp of good sense and candour. A thorough master of the sacred text, his scriptural proofs were sufficiently ample to satisfy all with whom "Thus saith the Lord" makes an end of the matter; and the remainder of his audience could hardly fail to be impressed by his ample straight-forward argument, and by his affectionate appeals and persuasions. With little imagination, he had all the freshness of an earnest spirit, and, if his illustrations were sometimes so plain as to border on meanness, an excuse may be found in the intensity of his own conviction, which hoped that, if once made sufficiently clear, the truth would carry its own commendation. And although his language is now-a-days censured as slovenly, it must be allowed to be natural, and in an age which abounded in verbal conceits and balanced antitheses, it is a relief to alight on productions so free from all affectation. Accordingly, amongst the serious and sober-minded members of the Church of England, there was no preacher who drew after him a greater throng, or who left more enduring impressions. There was no divine whose published sermons were more eagerly welcomed, and none which went through such rapid editions. And for half a century after his death, if asked to point out the best specimen of sacred oratory, or to select a book for Sunday reading, few country squires, or

thriving citizens, would have thought of any other than the sermons of Dr Tillotson-so sincere, yet so temperate; so warm, yet so free from extravagance; so plain in their style, yet so weighty with thought, and so urgent in their applications of practical truth.

In 1672, Tillotson was appointed Dean of Canterbury; and when the Prince of Orange was called to the throne, much against his own will, but by a sort of state necessity, the dean was forced to become archbishop. The most popular of preachers, and the man who had done more than all others to win the city of London back to the Church of England, liberal and brotherly in his intercourse with Dissenters, and gentle towards all men, the new settlement seemed to demand his elevation to the primacy; but he foresaw the penalty, and resisted, as long as he could, the entreaties and commands of King William. His consecration took place on Whitsunday 1691, and he did not long survive his unwelcome promotion, for he died on the 22d of November 1694. His remains were deposited in the Church of St Lawrence Jewry.

Of the archbishop's sermons no estimate more correct can be given than in the words of a like-minded pupil::- "They were full of good sense, judicious, solid, close, and very intelligible; his language masculine, but not bombast; his notions for the most part very clear, lying even to the understandings of attentive hearers. Those that were duly qualified heard him with delight, for they thought they knew the things before, and yet they were not obvious to common invention. He understood human nature, and natural divinity, and true morality very well; and therefore there was something in the hearts and consciences of men not debauched, that moved them to give assent and consent to what he spoke, as being agreeable and con-natural, as I may say, to the common reason and faculties of mankind, to that law of God written and engraven upon man's heart; and there is no teaching like that of en

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